Colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, is caused by a variety of factors, but luminal microbiota are thought to play crucial roles in disease development and progression. Indole is produced by gut microbiota and is believed to protect the colon from inflammatory damage. In the current study, we investigated whether indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring plant product found in numerous cruciferous vegetables, can prevent colitis-associated microbial dysbiosis and attempted to identify the mechanisms. Treatment with I3C led to repressed colonic inflammation and prevention of microbial dysbiosis caused by colitis, increasing a subset of gram-positive bacteria known to produce butyrate. I3C was shown to increase production of butyrate, and when mice with colitis were treated with butyrate, there was reduced colonic inflammation accompanied by suppression of Th17 and induction of Tregs, protection of the mucus layer, and upregulation in Pparg expression. Additionally, IL-22 was increased only after I3C but not butyrate administration, and neutralization of IL-22 prevented the beneficial effects of I3C against colitis, as well as blocked I3C-mediated dysbiosis and butyrate induction. This study suggests that I3C attenuates colitis primarily through induction of IL-22, which leads to modulation of gut microbiota that promote antiinflammatory butyrate.
Philip B. Busbee, Lorenzo Menzel, Haider Alrafas, Nicholas Dopkins, William Becker, Kathryn Miranda, Chaunbing Tang, Saurabh Chatterjee, Udai Singh, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S. Nagarkatti
Integrins, the extracellular matrix receptors that facilitate cell adhesion and migration, are necessary for organ morphogenesis; however, their role in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis is poorly understood. To define the functional importance of β1 integrin in adult mouse lung, we deleted it post-development in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Aged β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like pathology characterized by emphysema, lymphoid aggregates, and increased macrophage infiltration. These histopathological abnormalities were preceded by β1 integrin-deficient AEC dysfunction such as excessive reactive oxygen species production and up-regulation of NF-κB-dependent chemokines, including CCL2. Genetic deletion of the CCL2 receptor, Ccr2, in mice with β1 integrin-deficient type 2 AECs impaired recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages and resulted in accelerated inflammation and severe premature emphysematous destruction. These lungs exhibited reduced AEC efferocytosis and excessive numbers of inflamed type 2 AECs, demonstrating the requirement for recruited monocyte-macrophages in limiting lung injury and remodeling in the setting of a chronically inflamed epithelium. These studies support a critical role for β1 integrin in alveolar homeostasis in the adult lung.
Erin J. Plosa, John T. Benjamin, Jennifer M. Sucre, Peter M. Gulleman, Linda A. Gleaves, Wei Han, Seunghyi Kook, Vasiliy V. Polosukhin, Scott M. Haake, Susan H. Guttentag, Lisa R. Young, Ambra Pozzi, Timothy S. Blackwell, Roy Zent
Dystrophic muscle is characterised by chronic injury, and a steady recruitment of inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes. Recent studies have identified the spleen as the dominant reservoir of these cells during chronic inflammation. Here we investigated the hitherto unexplored contribution of splenic Ly6Chi monocytes to dystrophic muscle pathology. Using the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy, we show that Ly6Chi monocytes accumulate in great numbers in the spleen over the course of the disease. The chemokine receptor CCR2 was upregulated on Ly6Chi monocytes in mdx spleen before disease onset, thereby enabling their recruitment to dystrophic muscle. Splenectomy performed before disease onset significantly reduced the number of Ly6Chi monocytes infiltrating dystrophic limb muscle. Moreover, in the absence of splenic Ly6Chi monocytes there was a significant reduction in dystrophic muscle inflammation and necrosis, along with improved regeneration during early disease. However, during late disease, lack of splenic Ly6Chi monocytes adversely affected muscle fiber repair, due to a delay in the phenotypic shift of pro-inflammatory F4/80+/Ly6Chi/CD206lo to anti-inflammatory F4/80+/Ly6Clo/CD206+ macrophages. Overall, we show that the spleen is an indispensable source of Ly6Chi monocytes in muscular dystrophy, and that splenic monocytes are critical players in both muscle fiber injury and repair.
Giuseppe Rizzo, Rosanna Di Maggio, Anna Benedetti, Jacopo Morroni, Marina Bouche, Biliana Lozanoska-Ochser
The MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathway has been implicated in regulating the inflammatory response to lung injury and infection, and pharmacologic MEK1/2 inhibitor compounds are reported to reduce detrimental inflammation in multiple animal models of disease, in part through modulation of leukocyte responses. However, the specific contribution of myeloid MEK1 in regulating acute lung injury (ALI) and its resolution remain unknown. Here, the role of myeloid Mek1 was investigated in a murine model of LPS-induced ALI (LPS-ALI) by genetic deletion using the Cre-floxed system (LysMCre × Mekfl), and human alveolar macrophages from healthy volunteers and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were obtained to assess activation of the MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathway. Myeloid Mek1 deletion results in a failure to resolve LPS-ALI, and alveolar macrophages lacking MEK1 had increased activation of MEK2 and the downstream target ERK1/2 on day 4 of LPS-ALI. The clinical significance of these findings is supported by increased activation of the MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathway in alveolar macrophages from patients with ARDS compared with alveolar macrophages from healthy volunteers. This study reveals a critical role for myeloid MEK1 in promoting resolution of LPS-ALI and controlling the duration of macrophage proinflammatory responses.
Matthew E. Long, Ke-Qin Gong, William E. Eddy, Joseph S. Volk, Eric D. Morrell, Carmen Mikacenic, T. Eoin West, Shawn J. Skerrett, Jean Charron, W. Conrad Liles, Anne M. Manicone
Immune activation is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease in infants. We performed a case control analysis to identify drivers of immune activation and disease risk. Among 49 infants who developed TB disease over the first two years of life, and 129 matched controls who remained healthy, we found the cytomegalovirus (CMV) stimulated IFNγ response at age 4-6 months to be associated with CD8+ T cell activation (Spearmans rho, P = 6 x 10-8). A CMV specific IFNγ response was also associated with increased risk of developing TB disease (Conditional Logistic Regression, P = 0.043, OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.02-4.83), and shorter time to TB diagnosis (Log Rank Mantel-Cox P = 0.037). CMV positive infants who developed TB disease had lower expression of natural killer cell associated gene signatures and a lower frequency of CD3−CD4−CD8− lymphocytes. We identified transcriptional signatures predictive of risk of TB disease among CMV ELISpot positive (AUROC 0.98, accuracy 92.57%) and negative (AUROC 0.9, accuracy 79.3%) infants; the CMV negative signature validated in an independent infant study (AUROC 0.71, accuracy 63.9%). Understanding and controlling the microbial drivers of T cell activation, such as CMV, could guide new strategies for prevention of TB disease in infants.
Julius Müller, Rachel Tanner, Magali Matsumiya, Margaret A. Snowden, Bernard Landry, Iman Satti, Stephanie A. Harris, Matthew K. O'Shea, Lisa Stockdale, Leanne Marsay, Agnieszka Chomka, Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Zita-Rose Manjaly Thomas, Elena Stylianou, Vivek Naranbhai, Stanley Kimbung Mbandi, Mark Hatherill, Gregory Hussey, Hassan Mahomed, Michele Tameris, J. Bruce McClain, Willem A. Hanekom, Thomas G. Evans, Thomas J. Scriba, Helen McShane, Helen A. Fletcher
Worldwide, over a billion people suffer from chronic liver diseases, which often lead to fibrosis and then cirrhosis. Treatments for fibrosis remain experimental, in part because no unifying mechanism has been identified that initiates liver fibrosis. Necroptosis has been implicated in multiple liver diseases. Here, we report that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification protects against hepatocyte necroptosis and initiation of liver fibrosis. Decreased O-GlcNAc levels were seen in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and in mice with ethanol-induced liver injury. Liver-specific O-GlcNAc transferase–KO (OGT-LKO) mice exhibited hepatomegaly and ballooning degeneration at an early age and progressed to liver fibrosis and portal inflammation by 10 weeks of age. OGT-deficient hepatocytes underwent excessive necroptosis and exhibited elevated protein expression levels of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), which are key mediators of necroptosis. Furthermore, glycosylation of RIPK3 by OGT is associated with reduced RIPK3 protein stability. Taken together, these findings identify OGT as a key suppressor of hepatocyte necroptosis, and OGT-LKO mice may serve as an effective spontaneous genetic model of liver fibrosis.
Bichen Zhang, Min-Dian Li, Ruonan Yin, Yuyang Liu, Yunfan Yang, Kisha A. Mitchell-Richards, Jin Hyun Nam, Rui Li, Li Wang, Yasuko Iwakiri, Dongjun Chung, Marie E. Robert, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Anton M. Bennett, Jun Yu, Michael H. Nathanson, Xiaoyong Yang
X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR, Mendelian Inheritance in Man #301220) is a rare syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and sterile multiorgan inflammation. The syndrome is caused by an intronic mutation in POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α (Pol-α), which is responsible for Okazaki fragment synthesis during DNA replication. Reduced POLA1 expression in this condition triggers spontaneous type I interferon expression, which can be linked to the autoinflammatory manifestations of the disease. However, the history of recurrent infections in this syndrome is as yet unexplained. Here we report that patients with XLPDR have reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity and decreased numbers of NK cells, particularly differentiated, stage V, cells (CD3–CD56dim). This phenotype is reminiscent of hypomorphic mutations in MCM4, which encodes a component of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complex that is functionally linked to Pol-α during the DNA replication process. We find that POLA1 deficiency leads to MCM4 depletion and that both can impair NK cell natural cytotoxicity and show that this is due to a defect in lytic granule polarization. Altogether, our study provides mechanistic connections between Pol-α and the MCM complex and demonstrates their relevance in NK cell function.
Petro Starokadomskyy, Katelynn M. Wilton, Konrad Krzewski, Adam Lopez, Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez, Brittany Overlee, Qing Chen, Ann Ray, Aleksandra Gil-Krzewska, Mary Peterson, Lisa N. Kinch, Luis Rohena, Eyal Grunebaum, Andrew R. Zinn, Nick V. Grishin, Daniel D. Billadeau, Ezra Burstein
Inflammation may play a role in the link between high salt intake and its deleterious consequences. However, it is unknown whether salt can induce proinflammatory priming of monocytes and macrophages in humans. We investigated the effects of salt on monocytes and macrophages in vitro and in vivo by performing a randomized crossover trial in which 11 healthy human subjects adhered to a 2-week low-salt and high-salt diet. We demonstrate that salt increases monocyte expression of CCR2, a chemokine receptor that mediates monocyte infiltration in inflammatory diseases. In line with this, we show a salt-induced increase of plasma MCP-1, transendothelial migration of monocytes, and skin macrophage density after high-salt diet. Macrophages demonstrate signs of an increased proinflammatory phenotype after salt exposure, as represented by boosted LPS-induced cytokine secretion of IL-6, TNF, and IL-10 in vitro, and by increased HLA-DR expression and decreased CD206 expression on skin macrophages after high-salt diet. Taken together, our data open up the possibility for inflammatory monocyte and macrophage responses as potential contributors to the deleterious effects of high salt intake.
Eliane F.E. Wenstedt, Sanne G.S. Verberk, Jeffrey Kroon, Annette E. Neele, Jeroen Baardman, Nike Claessen, Özge T. Pasaoglu, Emma Rademaker, Esmee M. Schrooten, Rosa D. Wouda, Menno P.J. de Winther, Jan Aten, Liffert Vogt, Jan Van den Bossche
Lysosomes are at the epicenter of cellular processes critical for inflammasome activation in macrophages. Inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion are implicated in myocardial infarction (MI) and resultant heart failure; however, little is known about how macrophage lysosomes regulate these processes. In mice subjected to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and humans with ischemic cardiomyopathy, we observed evidence of lysosomal impairment in macrophages. Inducible macrophage-specific overexpression of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis (Mϕ-TFEB), attenuated postinfarction remodeling, decreased abundance of proinflammatory macrophages, and reduced levels of myocardial IL-1β compared with controls. Surprisingly, neither inflammasome suppression nor Mϕ-TFEB–mediated attenuation of postinfarction myocardial dysfunction required intact ATG5-dependent macroautophagy (hereafter termed “autophagy”). RNA-seq of flow-sorted macrophages postinfarction revealed that Mϕ-TFEB upregulated key targets involved in lysosomal lipid metabolism. Specifically, inhibition of the TFEB target, lysosomal acid lipase, in vivo abrogated the beneficial effect of Mϕ-TFEB on postinfarction ventricular function. Thus, TFEB reprograms macrophage lysosomal lipid metabolism to attenuate remodeling after IR, suggesting an alternative paradigm whereby lysosome function affects inflammation.
Ali Javaheri, Geetika Bajpai, Antonino Picataggi, Smrithi Mani, Layla Foroughi, Hosannah Evie, Attila Kovacs, Carla J. Weinheimer, Krzystztof Hyrc, Qingli Xiao, Andrea Ballabio, Jin-Moo Lee, Scot J. Matkovich, Babak Razani, Joel D. Schilling, Kory J. Lavine, Abhinav Diwan
Pulmonary drug delivery presents a unique opportunity to target lower airway inflammation, which is often characterized by the massive recruitment of neutrophils from blood. However specific therapies are lacking that can modulate airway neutrophil function, and difficult challenges must be overcome to achieve therapeutic efficacy against pulmonary inflammation, notably drug hydrophobicity, mucociliary and macrophage-dependent clearance, and high extracellular protease burden. Here, we present a multi-stage, aerodynamically favorable delivery platform that uses extracellular proteolysis to its advantage in order to deliver nanoparticle-embedded hydrophobic drugs to neutrophils within the lower airways. Our design consists in a self-regulated nanoparticle-in-microgel system, in which microgel activation is triggered by extracellular elastase (degranulated by inflammatory neutrophils), and nanoparticles are loaded with Nexinhib20, a potent neutrophil degranulation inhibitor. Successful in vivo delivery of Nexinhib20 to the airways and into neutrophils promoted resolution of the inflammatory response by dampening neutrophil recruitment and degranulation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production in both airway and systemic compartments, as well as the presence of neutrophil-derived pathological extracellular vesicles in the lung fluid. Our findings showcase a new platform that overcomes challenges in pulmonary drug delivery and allows customization to match the proteolytic footprint of given diseases.
Joscelyn C Mejías, Osric A Forrest, Camilla Margaroli, David A. Frey Rubio, Liliana Viera, Jindong Li, Xin Xu, Amit Gaggar, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Krishnendu Roy
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