Cytokine therapy is limited by undesirable off-target side effects as well as terminal differentiation and exhaustion of chronically stimulated T cells. Here, we describe the signaling properties of a potentially unique cytokine by design, where T cell surface binding and signaling are separated between 2 different families of receptors. This fusion protein cytokine, called OMCPmutIL-2, bound with high affinity to the cytotoxic lymphocyte-defining immunoreceptor NKG2D but signaled through the common γ chain cytokine receptor. In addition to precise activation of cytotoxic T cells due to redirected binding, OMCPmutIL-2 resulted in superior activation of both human and murine CD8+ T cells by improving their survival and memory cell generation and decreasing exhaustion. This functional improvement was the direct result of altered signal transduction based on the reorganization of surface membrane lipid rafts that led to Janus kinase-3–mediated phosphorylation of the T cell receptor rather than STAT/AKT signaling intermediates. This potentially novel signaling pathway increased CD8+ T cell response to low-affinity antigens, activated nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription factors, and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis. OMCPmutIL-2 thus outperformed other common γ chain cytokines as a catalyst for in vitro CD8+ T cell expansion and in vivo CD8+ T cell–based immunotherapy.
Anirban Banerjee, Dongge Li, Yizhan Guo, Zhongcheng Mei, Christine Lau, Kelly Chen, John Westwick, Jeffery B. Klauda, Adam Schrum, Eric R. Lazear, Alexander S. Krupnick
The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits both dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. Individuals in endemic areas are at risk for infection with both viruses as well as repeated DENV infection. In the presence of anti-DENV antibodies, outcomes of secondary DENV infection range from mild to life-threatening. Further, the role of cross-reactive antibodies on the course of ZIKV infection remains unclear. We assessed the ability of cross-reactive DENV monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal immunoglobulin isolated after DENV vaccination to upregulate type I interferon (IFN) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in response to both heterotypic DENV- and ZIKV- infected cells. We found a range in the ability of antibodies to increase pDC IFN production and a positive correlation between IFN production and the ability of an antibody to bind to the infected cell surface. Engagement of Fc receptors on the pDC and Fab binding of an epitope on infected cells was required to mediate increased IFN production by providing specificity to and promoting pDC sensing of DENV or ZIKV. This represents a mechanism independent of neutralization by which pre-existing cross-reactive DENV antibodies could protect a subset of individuals from severe outcomes during secondary heterotypic DENV or ZIKV infection.
Laura K. Aisenberg, Kimberly E. Rousseau, Katherine Cascino, Guido Massaccesi, William H. Aisenberg, Wensheng Luo, Kar Muthumani, David B. Weiner, Stephen S. Whitehead, Michael A. Chattergoon, Anna P. Durbin, Andrea L. Cox
Macrophages play a crucial role in the inflammatory response to the human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which infects half of the world’s population and causes gastric cancer. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of macrophage immunometabolism in their activation state and function. We have demonstrated that the cysteine-producing enzyme, cystathionine g-lyase (CTH), is upregulated in humans and mice with H. pylori infection. Here we show that induction of CTH in macrophages by H. pylori promotes persistent inflammation. Cth–/– mice have reduced macrophage and T-cell activation in H. pylori-infected tissues, an altered metabolome, and decreased enrichment of immune-associated gene networks, culminating in decreased H. pylori-induced-gastritis. CTH is downstream of the proposed anti-inflammatory molecule, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). While Cth–/– mice exhibit gastric SAM accumulation, WT mice treated with SAM did not display protection against H. pylori-induced inflammation. Instead, we demonstrate that Cth-deficient macrophages exhibit alterations in the proteome, decreased NF-kB activation, diminished expression of macrophage activation markers, and impaired oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Thus, through altering cellular respiration, CTH is a key enhancer of macrophage activation contributing to a pathogenic inflammatory response that is the universal precursor for the development of H. pylori-induced gastric disease.
Yvonne L. Latour, Johanna C. Sierra, Jordan L. Finley, Mohammad Asim, Daniel P. Barry, Margaret M. Allaman, Thaddeus M. Smith, Kara M. McNamara, Paula B. Luis, Claus Schneider, Justin Jacobse, Jeremy A. Goettel, M. Wade Calcutt, Kristie L. Rose, Kevin L Schey, Ginger L. Milne, Alberto G. Delgado, M. Blanca Piazuelo, Bindu D. Paul, Solomon Snyder, Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) are transient ectopic lymphoid aggregates whose formation might be caused by chronic inflammation states, such as cancer. However, how TLSs are induced in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and how they affect patient survival are not well understood. We investigated TLS distribution in relation to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and related gene expression in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) specimens. CXCL13 gene expression correlated with TLS presence and the infiltration of T cells and B cells, and was a favorable prognostic factor for HGSC patients. Coexistence of CD8+ T cells and B-cell lineages in the TME significantly improved the prognosis of HGSC and was correlated with the presence of TLSs. CXCL13 expression was predominantly coincident with CD4+ T cells in TLSs and CD8+ T cells in TILs, and shifted from CD4+ T cells to CD21+ follicular dendritic cells as TLS matured. In a mouse ovarian cancer model, recombinant CXCL13 induced TLSs and enhanced survival by the infiltration of CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that TLS formation was associated with CXCL13-producing CD4+ T cells and that TLSs facilitated the coordinated antitumor response of cellular and humoral immunity in ovarian cancer.
Masayo Ukita, Junzo Hamanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshitomi, Koji Yamanoi, Shiro Takamatsu, Akihiko Ueda, Haruka Suzuki, Yuko Hosoe, Yoko Furutake, Mana Taki, Kaoru Abiko, Ken Yamaguchi, Hidekatsu Nakai, Tsukasa Baba, Noriomi Matsumura, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Hideki Ueno, Masaki Mandai
People living with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience episodic central nervous system (CNS) white matter lesions instigated by autoreactive T cells. With age, MS patients show evidence of grey matter demyelination and experience devastating non-remitting symptomology. What drives progression is unclear and has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models. Here we show that passive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by an adoptive transfer of young Th17 cells induces a non-remitting clinical phenotype that is associated with persistent leptomeningeal inflammation and cortical pathology in old, but not young SJL/J mice. While the quantity and quality of T cells did not differ in the brains of old vs young EAE mice, an increase in neutrophils and a decrease in B cells was observed in the brains of old mice. Neutrophils were also found in the leptomeninges of a subset of progressive MS patient brains that showed evidence of leptomeningeal inflammation and subpial cortical demyelination. Taken together, our data show that while Th17 cells initiate CNS inflammation, subsequent clinical symptoms and grey matter pathology are dictated by age and associated with other immune cells such as neutrophils.
Michelle Zuo, Naomi M Fettig, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Elisabeth Pössnecker, Shoshana Spring, Annie Pu, Xianjie I. Ma, Dennis S.W. Lee, Lesley A. Ward, Anshu Sharma, Jens Kuhle, John G. Sled, Anne-Katrin Pröbstel, Brian A. MacVicar, Lisa C. Osborne, Jennifer L. Gommerman, Valeria Ramaglia
Hematopoietic protein-1 (Hem-1) is a member of the actin-regulatory WASp family verprolin homolog (WAVE) complex. Loss-of-function variants in the NCKAP1L gene encoding Hem-1 were recently discovered to result in primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) in children, characterized by poor specific Ab responses, increased autoantibodies, and high mortality. However, the mechanisms of how Hem-1 deficiency results in PID are unclear. In this study, we utilized constitutive and B cell–specific Nckap1l-KO mice to dissect the importance of Hem-1 in B cell development and functions. B cell–specific disruption of Hem-1 resulted in reduced numbers of recirculating follicular (FO), marginal zone (MZ), and B1 B cells. B cell migration in response to CXCL12 and -13 were reduced. T-independent Ab responses were nearly abolished, resulting in failed protective immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge. In contrast, T-dependent IgM and IgG2c, memory B cell, and plasma cell responses were more robust relative to WT control mice. B cell–specific Hem-1–deficient mice had increased autoantibodies against multiple autoantigens, and this correlated with hyperresponsive BCR signaling and increased representation of CD11c+T-bet+ age-associated B cell (ABC cells) — alterations associated with autoimmune diseases. These results suggest that dysfunctional B cells may be part of a mechanism explaining why loss-of-function Hem-1 variants result in recurring infections and autoimmunity.
Alan Avalos, Jacob T. Tietsort, Nutthakarn Suwankitwat, Jonathan D. Woods, Shaun W. Jackson, Alexandra Christodoulou, Christopher Morrill, H. Denny Liggitt, Chengsong Zhu, Quan-Zhen Li, Kevin K. Bui, Heon Park, Brian M. Iritani
Recent studies highlighted the clinicopathologic importance of tumor microenvironment (TME) in delineating molecular attributes and therapeutic potentials. However, the overall TME cell-infiltration landscape in non-squamous NSCLC have not been comprehensively recognized. In this study, we employed consensus non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) molecular subtyping to determine the TME cell infiltration patterns and identified three TME clusters (TME-C1, -C2, -C3) characterized by distinct clinicopathologic features, infiltrating cells, and biological processes. Proteomics analyses revealed that cGAS-STING immune signaling mediated protein and phosphorylation level were significantly upregulated in inflamed-related TME-C2 clusters. The TMEsig-score extracted from the TME-related signature divided NSCLC patients into high- and low-score subgroups, where a high score was associated with favorable prognosis and immune infiltration. Genomic landscape revealed that patients with low TMEsig-score harbored greater somatic copy number alternations and higher mutation frequency of driver genes involving STK11, KEAP1 and SMARCA4 et al. Drug sensitivity analyses suggested that tumors with high TMEsig-score were responsible for favorable clinical response to immune check-point inhibitors (ICI) treatment. In summary, this study highlights that comprehensive recognizing of the TME cell infiltration landscape will contribute to enhance our understanding of TME immune regulation and promote effectiveness of precision biotherapy strategies.
Hao Chen, Tongchao Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Hao Wu, Zhen Fang, Yang Liu, Yang Chen, Zhe Wang, Shengtao Jia, Xingzhao Ji, Liang Shang, Fengying Du, Jin Liu, Ming Lu, Wei Chong
Understanding the immune response to dengue virus (DENV) is essential for developing a dengue vaccine that is protective against all four DENV serotypes. We evaluated the immune response post-vaccination (live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine TV005 or trivalent admixture) and post-challenge with DEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) to better understand the importance of homotypic immunity in vaccine protection. Significant increases in IP-10 expression were observed following receipt of either the trivalent or tetravalent vaccine. After challenge, a large increase in IP-10 expression was observed in the placebo (FCH = 4.5) and trivalent admixture groups (FCH = 2.3) but not in the tetravalent vaccine group (FCH = 1.1). MCP-1, IL-1RA, and MIP-1β exhibit a similar pattern as IP-10. These results demonstrate protective effects of trivalent and tetravalent vaccines against DENV, but suggest a better protective effect with the tetravalent vaccine compared to the trivalent admixture. We also explored the post-vaccination and post-challenge immune response differences between black participants and white participants. White participants respond to vaccine differently from black participants, with black participants receiving trivalent and tetravalent vaccines respond strongly and white participants only transiently in trivalent group. In response to challenge, white participants elicit a stronger response than black participants. These results may explain why white participants may have a more vigorous DENV immune response than black participants reported in literature.
Ruixue Hou, Lewis E. Tomalin, Jessica Pintado Silva, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Stephen S. Whitehead, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Anna P. Durbin, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) results from expansion of a CD5+ B-cell clone that requires interactions with other cell types, including T cells. Moreover, CLL patients have elevated circulating IL17A+ and IL17F+ CD4+ T cells (Th17s), with higher IL17A+Th17s correlating with better outcomes. We report that CLL Th17s express more miR155, a Th17 differentiation regulator, than control Th17s, despite naïve CD4+ T cell (TN) basal miR155 levels being similar in both. We also found that CLL cells directly regulate miR155 levels in TN, thereby affecting Th17 differentiation by documenting that: co-culturing TN with resting (Brest) or activated (Bact) CLL cells alters the magnitude and direction of T-cell miR155 levels; CLL Bact promote IL17A+ and IL17F+ T cell generation by a miR155-dependent mechanism, confirmed by miR155 inhibition; co-cultures of TN with CLL Bact lead to a linear correlation between the degree and direction of T-cell miR155 expression changes and IL17F production, but not IL17A; Bact-mediated changes in TN miR155 expression correlate with outcome, irrespective of IGHV mutation status, a strong prognostic indicator. Together, the results identify a previously unrecognized CLL Bact-dependent mechanism, upregulation of TN miR155 expression and subsequent enhancement of IL17F+ Th17 generation, that favors better clinical courses.
Byeongho Jung, Gerardo Ferrer, Pui Yan Chiu, Rukhsana Aslam, Anita Ng, Florencia Palacios, Michael Wysota, Martina Cardillo, Jonathan E. Kolitz, Steven L. Allen, Jacqueline C. Barrientos, Kanti R. Rai, Nicholas Chiorazzi, Barbara Sherry
In many solid cancers, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) represent the predominant myeloid cell population. Antigen (Ag) cross-presentation leading to tumor Ag-directed cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses is crucial for anti-tumor immunity. However, the role of recruited monocyte-derived macrophages, including TAM, as potential cross-presenting cells is not well understood. Here, we show that primary human as well as mouse CD206+ macrophages are effective in functional cross-presentation of soluble self and non-self Ag, including tumor-associated Ag (TAA) as well as viral Ag. To confirm the presence of cross-presenting TAM in vivo, we performed phenotypic and functional analysis of TAM from B16-F10 and CT26 syngeneic tumor models and have identified CD11b+F4/80hiCD206+ TAM to effectively cross-present TAA. We show that CD11b+CD206+ TAM represent the dominant tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell population, expressing a unique cell surface repertoire, promoting Ag cross-presentation and Ag-specific CD8+ T cell activation comparable to cross-presenting CLEC9A+ dendritic cells (cDC1). The presence of cross-presenting CD206+ TAM is associated with reduced tumor burden in mouse syngeneic tumor models and with improved overall survival in cutaneous melanoma patients. Therefore, the demonstration of effective Ag cross-presentation capabilities of CD206+ TAM, including their clinical relevance, expands our understanding of TAM phenotypic diversity and functional versatility.
Madhura Modak, Ann-Kathrin Mattes, Daniela Reiss, Wioletta Skronska-Wasek, Rebecca Langlois, Nicolas Sabarth, Renate Konopitzky, Fidel Ramírez, Katharina Lehr, Tobias Mayr, David Kind, Coralie Viollet, Lee Kim Swee, Jutta Petschenka, Karim Christian El Kasmi, Elfriede Noessner, Kerstin Kitt, Stefan Pflanz
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