Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is a promising new modality for malignancies. Here, we report that adoptive T cell efficacy in tumor-bearing mice is significantly affected by differences in the native composition of the gut microbiome or treatment with antibiotics, or by heterologous fecal transfer. Depletion of bacteria with vancomycin decreased the rate of tumor growth in mice from The Jackson Laboratory receiving ACT, whereas treatment with neomycin and metronidazole had no effect, indicating the role of specific bacteria in host response. Vancomycin treatment induced an increase in systemic CD8α+ DCs, which sustained systemic adoptively transferred antitumor T cells in an IL-12–dependent manner. In subjects undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we found that oral vancomycin also increased IL-12 levels. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role played by the gut microbiota in the antitumor effectiveness of ACT and suggest potentially new avenues to improve response to ACT by altering the gut microbiota.
Mireia Uribe-Herranz, Kyle Bittinger, Stavros Rafail, Sonia Guedan, Stefano Pierini, Ceylan Tanes, Alex Ganetsky, Mark A. Morgan, Saar Gill, Janos L. Tanyi, Frederic D. Bushman, Carl H. June, Andrea Facciabene
The inverse relationship between gestational age at birth and postviral respiratory morbidity suggests that infants born preterm (PT) may miss a critical developmental window of T cell maturation. Despite a continued increase in younger PT survivors with respiratory complications, we have limited understanding of normal human fetal T cell maturation, how ex utero development in premature infants may interrupt normal T cell development, and whether T cell development has an effect on infant outcomes. In our longitudinal cohort of 157 infants born between 23 and 42 weeks of gestation, we identified differences in T cells present at birth that were dependent on gestational age and differences in postnatal T cell development that predicted respiratory outcome at 1 year of age. We show that naive CD4+ T cells shift from a CD31–TNF-α+ bias in mid gestation to a CD31+IL-8+ predominance by term gestation. Former PT infants discharged with CD31+IL8+CD4+ T cells below a range similar to that of full-term born infants were at an over 3.5-fold higher risk for respiratory complications after NICU discharge. This study is the first to our knowledge to identify a pattern of normal functional T cell development in later gestation and to associate abnormal T cell development with health outcomes in infants.
Kristin M. Scheible, Jason Emo, Nathan Laniewski, Andrea M. Baran, Derick R. Peterson, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Sanjukta Bandyopadhyay, Andrew G. Straw, Heidie Huyck, John M. Ashton, Kelly Schooping Tripi, Karan Arul, Elizabeth Werner, Tanya Scalise, Deanna Maffett, Mary Caserta, Rita M. Ryan, Anne Marie Reynolds, Clement L. Ren, David J. Topham, Thomas J. Mariani, Gloria S. Pryhuber
Recipient endogenous memory T cells with donor reactivity pose an important barrier to successful transplantation and costimulatory blockade–induced graft tolerance. Longer ischemic storage times prior to organ transplantation increase early posttransplant inflammation and negatively impact early graft function and long-term graft outcome. Little is known about the mechanisms enhancing endogenous memory T cell activation to mediate tissue injury within the increased inflammatory environment of allografts subjected to prolonged cold ischemic storage (CIS). Endogenous memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation is markedly increased within complete MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts subjected to prolonged versus minimal CIS, and the memory CD8+ T cells directly mediate CTLA-4Ig–resistant allograft rejection. Memory CD8+ T cell activation within allografts subjected to prolonged CIS requires memory CD4+ T cell stimulation of graft DCs to produce p40 homodimers, but not IL-12 p40/p35 heterodimers. Targeting p40 abrogates memory CD8+ T cell proliferation within the allografts and their ability to mediate CTLA-4Ig–resistant allograft rejection. These findings indicate a critical role for memory CD4+ T cell–graft DC interactions to increase the intensity of endogenous memory CD8+ T cell activation needed to mediate rejection of higher-risk allografts subjected to increased CIS.
Hidetoshi Tsuda, Charles A. Su, Toshiaki Tanaka, Katayoun Ayasoufi, Booki Min, Anna Valujskikh, Robert L. Fairchild
Despite the fact that many therapeutic strategies have been adopted to delay the development of sepsis, sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in noncoronary intensive care units. Recently, sepsis-3 was defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Here, we report that swiprosin-1 (also known as EFhd2) plays an important role in the macrophage immune response to LPS-induced or cecal ligation and puncture–induced (CLP-induced) sepsis in mice. Swiprosin-1 depletion causes higher mortality, more severe organ dysfunction, restrained macrophage recruitment in the lung and kidney, and attenuated inflammatory cytokine production (including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and IFN-γ). The immunosuppression caused by swiprosin-1 deficiency is manifested by impaired bactericidal capacity and decreased HLA-DR expression in macrophages. Swiprosin-1 affects the activation of the JAK2/STAT1/STAT3 pathway by regulating the expression of IFN-γ receptors in macrophages. Our findings provide a potential target for the regulation of the macrophage immune response in sepsis.
Su Zhang, Ye Tu, Yi-Ming Sun, Ya Li, Rong-Mei Wang, Yongbing Cao, Ling Li, Li-Chao Zhang, Zhi-Bin Wang
Several reports have demonstrated that mouse Cx3cr1 signaling promotes monocyte/macrophage survival. In agreement, we previously found that, in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, genetic deficiency of Cx3cr1 resulted in increased mortality and impaired tissue fungal clearance associated with decreased macrophage survival. We translated this finding by showing that the dysfunctional CX3CR1 variant CX3CR1-M280 was associated with increased risk and worse outcome of human systemic candidiasis. However, the impact of this mutation on human monocyte/macrophage survival is poorly understood. Herein, we hypothesized that CX3CR1-M280 impairs human monocyte survival. We identified WT (CX3CR1-WT/WT), CX3CR1-WT/M280 heterozygous, and CX3CR1-M280/M280 homozygous healthy donors of European descent, and we show that CX3CL1 rescues serum starvation–induced cell death in CX3CR1-WT/WT and CX3CR1-WT/M280 but not in CX3CR1-M280/M280 monocytes. CX3CL1-induced survival of CX3CR1-WT/WT monocytes is mediated via AKT and ERK activation, which are both impaired in CX3CR1-M280/M280 monocytes, associated with decreased blood monocyte counts in CX3CR1-M280/M280 donors at steady state. Instead, CX3CR1-M280/M280 does not affect monocyte CX3CR1 surface expression or innate immune effector functions. Together, we show that homozygocity of the M280 polymorphism in CX3CR1 is a potentially novel population-based genetic factor that influences human monocyte signaling.
Amanda L. Collar, Muthulekha Swamydas, Morgan O’Hayre, Md Sanaullah Sajib, Kevin W. Hoffman, Satya P. Singh, Ahmad Mourad, Melissa D. Johnson, Elise M.N. Ferre, Joshua M. Farber, Jean K. Lim, Constantinos M. Mikelis, J. Silvio Gutkind, Michail S. Lionakis
NK cell–based immunotherapies have been gaining traction in the clinic for treatment of cancer. IL-15 is currently being used in number of clinical trials to improve NK cell expansion and function. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of repetitive IL-15 exposure on NK cells. An in vitro model in which human NK cells are continuously (on on on) or intermittently (on off on) treated with IL-15 was used to explore this question. After treatment, cells were evaluated for proliferation, survival, cell cycle gene expression, function, and metabolic processes. Our data indicate that continuous treatment of NK cells with IL-15 resulted in decreased viability and a cell cycle arrest gene expression pattern. This was associated with diminished signaling, decreased function both in vitro and in vivo, and reduced tumor control. NK cells continuously treated with IL-15 also displayed a reduced mitochondrial respiration profile when compared with NK cells treated intermittently with IL-15. This profile was characterized by a decrease in the spare respiratory capacity that was dependent on fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Limiting the strength of IL-15 signaling via utilization of an mTOR inhibitor rescued NK cell functionality in the group continuously treated with IL-15. The findings presented here show that human NK cells continuously treated with IL-15 undergo a process consistent with exhaustion that is accompanied by a reduction in FAO. These findings should inform IL-15–dosing strategies in NK cell cancer immunotherapeutic settings.
Martin Felices, Alexander J. Lenvik, Ron McElmurry, Sami Chu, Peter Hinderlie, Laura Bendzick, Melissa A. Geller, Jakub Tolar, Bruce R. Blazar, Jeffrey S. Miller
Neutrophils dominate the early immune response in pathogen-induced acute lung injury, but efforts to harness their responses have not led to therapeutic advancements. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been proposed as an innate defense mechanism responsible for pathogen clearance, but there are concerns that NETs may induce collateral damage to host tissues. Here, we detected NETs in abundance in mouse models of severe bacterial pneumonia/acute lung injury and in human subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from pneumonia or sepsis. Decreasing NETs reduced lung injury and improved survival after DNase I treatment or with partial protein arginine deiminase 4 deficiency (PAD4+/–). Complete PAD4 deficiency (PAD4–/–) reduced NETs and lung injury but was counterbalanced by increased bacterial load and inflammation. Importantly, we discovered that the lipoxin pathway could be a potent modulator of NET formation, and that mice deficient in the lipoxin receptor (Fpr2–/–) produced excess NETs leading to increased lung injury and mortality. Lastly, we observed in humans that increased plasma NETs were associated with ARDS severity and mortality, and lower plasma DNase I levels were associated with the development of sepsis-induced ARDS. We conclude that a critical balance of NETs is necessary to prevent lung injury and to maintain microbial control, which has important therapeutic implications.
Emma Lefrançais, Beñat Mallavia, Hanjing Zhuo, Carolyn S. Calfee, Mark R. Looney
Intestinal epithelial cells condition tolerogenic properties in DCs. Aqueous-deficient dry eye is associated with goblet cell (GC) loss and increased IFN-γ expression in the conjunctiva. We hypothesized that loss of GCs reduces tolerance-inducing properties of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the conjunctiva and draining nodes. Mice lacking the SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (Spdef) that is required for GC differentiation had an increased frequency of macrophages in the conjunctiva and CD11b+CD11c+ DCs in the conjunctiva and draining nodes, and these cells had greater IL-12 expression than WT mice. Conditioned media from cultured WT conjunctival GCs suppressed LPS-induced IL-12 production by conjunctival APCs. OVA antigen–specific OTII CD4+ T cells primed by Spdef-KO draining lymph node APCs showed greater proliferation, lower frequency of Foxp3+, increased frequency of IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ cells, and greater IFN-γ production than those primed by WT APCs. The immune tolerance to OVA antigen topically applied to the conjunctiva measured by cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, OVA-specific T cell proliferation, Foxp3 induction, and IFN-γ production observed in WT mice was lost in the Spdef-KO mice. We concluded that conjunctival GCs condition tolerogenic properties in APCs that suppress IL-12 production and Th1 polarization.
Byung Yi Ko, Yangyan Xiao, Flavia L. Barbosa, Cintia S. de Paiva, Stephen C. Pflugfelder
The role of proinflammation, and specifically TNF-α, on downstream fibrosis and healing after cardiac injury remains unknown. Using iRhom2-deficient mice, which lack myeloid-specific shedding of TNF-α, we reveal increased macrophages (MΦs) that were skewed towards a more proinflammatory (M1) state at day 4, followed by more reparative, antiinflammatory (M2) state at day 7 after myocardial infarction (MI). However, associated functional cytokine expression was significantly reduced in iRhom2-mutant M1 and M2 MΦs, respectively. A dampened proinflammatory signature in iRhom2-deficient mice during the acute phase of injury and subsequent changes in MΦ polarization were associated with reduced phagocytosis and a more sparse distribution within the scar region. This resulted in impaired collagen deposition and fibrosis, and increased left ventricular remodelling and mortality in iRhom2-deficient mice after MI. Our findings reveal a requirement for an iRhom2-mediated proinflammatory response during downstream scarring and fibrosis, which is driven in part by TNF-α signaling. These conclusions challenge the existing model that infarct repair is determined exclusively by antiinflammatory signaling of M2 MΦs, and as such we propose an alternative view of immunomodulation to maintain effective healing after infarction.
Damien N. Barnette, Thomas J. Cahill, Mala Gunadasa-Rohling, Carolyn A. Carr, Matthew Freeman, Paul R. Riley
BACKGROUND. DC-based tumor vaccines have had limited clinical success thus far. SOCS1, a key inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine signaling, is an immune checkpoint regulator that limits DC immunopotency. METHODS. We generated a genetically modified DC (gmDC) vaccine to perform immunotherapy. The adenovirus (Ad-siSSF) delivers two tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), survivin and MUC1; secretory bacterial flagellin for DC maturation; and an RNA interference moiety to suppress SOCS1. A 2-stage phase I trial was performed for patients with relapsed acute leukemia after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: in stage 1, we compared the safety and efficacy between gmDC treatment (23 patients) and standard donor lymphocyte infusion (25 patients); in stage 2, we tested the efficacy of the gmDC vaccine for 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with early molecular relapse. RESULTS. gmDCs elicited potent TAA-specific CTL responses in vitro, and the immunostimulatory activity of gmDC vaccination was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys. A stage 1 study established that this combinatory gmDC vaccine is safe in acute leukemia patients and yielded improved survival rate. In stage 2, we observed a complete remission rate of 83% in 12 relapsed AML patients. Overall, no grade 3 or grade 4 graft-versus-host disease incidence was detected in any of the 35 patients enrolled. CONCLUSIONS. This study, with combinatory modifications in DCs, demonstrates the safety and efficacy of SOCS1-silenced DCs in treating relapsed acute leukemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956630. FUNDING. National Institute of Health (R01CA90427); the Key New Drug Development and Manufacturing Program of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” of China (2011ZX09102-001-29); and Clinical Application Research of Beijing (Z131107002213148).
Danhong Wang, Xue F. Huang, Bangxing Hong, Xiao-Tong Song, Liangding Hu, Min Jiang, Bin Zhang, Hongmei Ning, Yuhang Li, Chen Xu, Xiao Lou, Botao Li, Zhiyong Yu, Jiangwei Hu, Jianlin Chen, Fan Yang, Haiyan Gao, Guoliang Ding, Lianming Liao, Lisa Rollins, Lindsey Jones, Si-Yi Chen, Hu Chen
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