Background: Prehospital plasma improves survival in severely injured trauma patients at risk for hemorrhagic shock and transported by air ambulance. We hypothesized that prehospital plasma would be associated with a reduction in immune imbalance and endothelial damage. Methods: We collected blood samples from 405 trauma patients enrolled in the Prehospital Air MedicalPlasma (PAMPer) trial upon hospital admission (0 hours) and 24 hours post admission across 6 U.S. sites(9 level-one trauma centers) with air medical transport services. We assayed samples for 21 inflammatory mediators and 7 markers of endothelial damage. We performed hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) on principal components of these biomarkers of the immune response and endothelial injury. Regression analysis was used to control for known differences across study arms near the time of randomization and to assess any association with prehospital plasma administration. Results: HCA based on inflammatory mediator and endothelial damage marker concentrations distinguished two patient clusters, each with different injury patterns and outcomes. Patients in cluster A had greater injury severity and incidence of blunt trauma, traumatic brain injury, and mortality. Cluster A patients that received prehospital plasma as compared to standard care fluid resuscitation showed improved 30-day survival. Prehospital plasma did not improve survival in cluster B patients. In an adjusted analysis of themost seriously injured patients (ISS>30), plasma was associated with a an increase in circulating levels of adiponectin, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-23, and IL-17E upon admission. One day following admission, prehospital plasmas was associated with a reduction in syndecan-1, TM, VEGF, IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α, and an increase in IL-33, IL-21, IL-23, and IL-17E. Conclusion: This is the first human study to suggest that prehospital plasma may ameliorate the endotheliopathy of trauma and modulate an imbalance between pro-inflammatory (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) and protective (e.g. IL-33 and IL-17E) mediators. These effects of early plasma administration may contribute to improved survival in severely injured patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01818427 Funding: National Institutes of Health T32; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command W81XWH-12-2-0023; National Institutes of Health R35; National Institutes of Health 1R35GM119526-01; the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, through the Defense Medical Research and Development Program W81XWH-18-2-0051 and W81XWH-15-PRORP-OCRCA. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and not necessarily endorsed by the Department of Defense.
Danielle S. Gruen, Joshua B. Brown, Francis X. Guyette, Yoram Vodovotz, Par I. Johansson, Jakob Stensballe, Derek A. Barclay, Jinling Yin, Brian J. Daley, Richard S. Miller, Brian G. Harbrecht, Jeffrey A. Claridge, Herb A. Phelan, Matthew D. Neal, Brian Zuckerbraun, Timothy R. Billiar, Jason L. Sperry
Septic cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by sepsis. Ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1) belongs to a group of host-defense peptides that specifically cleave extracellular RNA (eRNA). The activity of RNase1 is inhibited by ribonuclease-inhibitor 1 (RNH1). The role of RNase 1 in septic cardiomyopathy and associated cardiac apoptosis, however, is completely unknown. Here, we showed that sepsis resulted in a significant increase in RNH1 and eRNA serum levels compared to those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Treatment with RNase 1 resulted in a significant decrease of apoptosis, induced by the intrinsic pathway, and TNF expression in murine cardiomyocytes exposed to either necrotic cardiomyocytes or serum of septic patients for 16 h (p < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment of septic mice with RNase 1 resulted in a reduction in cardiac apoptosis, TNF expression and septic cardiomyopathy (p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that eRNA plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the organ (cardiac) dysfunction in sepsis and RNase and RNH1 may be new therapeutic targets/strategies to reduce the cardiac injury and dysfunction caused by sepsis.
Elisabeth Zechendorf, Caroline E O'Riordan, Lara Stiehler, Natalie Wischmeyer, Fausto Chiazza, Debora Collotta, Bernd Denecke, Sabrina Ernst, Gerhard Müller-Newen, Sina M. Coldewey, Bianka Wissuwa, Massimo Collino, Tim-Philipp Simon, Tobias Schuerholz, Christian Stoppe, Gernot Marx, Christoph Thiemermann, Lukas Martin
Acinetobacter baumannii is an extremely versatile multidrug resistant pathogen with a very high mortality rate therefore, it has become crucial to understand the host response during its infection. Given the importance of mice for modelling infection and their role in pre-clinical drug development equal emphasis should be placed on the utilization of both sexes. Through our studies using a murine model of acute pneumonia with A. baumannii, we observed that female mice were more susceptible to infection. Likewise, treatment of male mice with estradiol increased their susceptibility to infection. Analysis of the airway compartment revealed enhanced inflammation and reduced neutrophil and alveolar macrophage numbers compared to male mice. Depletion of either neutrophils or alveolar macrophages was important for bacterial clearance however, depletion of alveolar macrophages further exacerbated female susceptibility due to severe alterations in metabolic homoeostasis. Our data highlights the importance of utilizing both sexes when assessing host immune pathways.
Silvia Pires, Adeline C. Peignier, Jeremy Seto, Davida S. Smyth, Dane Parker
Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (aGVHD) is a T cell mediated immunological disorder and the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in patients who receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. Based on recent observations that PRMT5 and arginine methylation is upregulated in activated memory T cells, we hypothesized that PRMT5 is involved in the pathogenesis of aGVHD. Here, we show that PRMT5 expression and enzymatic activity is upregulated in activated T cells in vitro and in T cells from mice developing aGVHD after allogeneic transplant. PRMT5 expression is also upregulated in T cells of patients who developed aGVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant compared to those who did not develop aGVHD.PRMT5 inhibition using a selective small-molecule inhibitor (C220) significantly reduces mouse and human allogeneic T cell proliferation and inflammatory IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokine production. Administration of PRMT5 small-molecule inhibitors significantly improves survival, reducing disease incidence and clinical severity in mouse models of aGVHD without adversely affecting engraftment. Importantly, we show that PRMT5 inhibition retains the beneficial graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect by maintaining cytotoxic CD8 T cell responses. Mechanistically, we show that PRMT5 inhibition potently reduces STAT-1 phosphorylation as well as transcription of pro-inflammatory genes including Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISG) and IL-17. Additionally, PRMT5 inhibition deregulates cell-cycle in activated T cells and disrupts signaling by impacting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, we have identified PRMT5 as a regulator of T cell responses and as a therapeutic target in aGVHD.
Katiri Snyder, Nina C. Zitzer, Yandi Gao, Hannah K. Choe, Natalie E. Sell, Lotus Neidemire-Colley, Anora Ignaci, Charuta Kale, Raymond D. Devine, Maria G. Abad, Maciej Pietrzak, Min Wang, Hong Lin, Yang W. Zhang, Gregory K. Behbehani, Jane E. Jackman, Ramiro Garzon, Kris Vaddi, Robert A. Baiocchi, Parvathi Ranganathan
Changes in maternal immunity during pregnancy can result in an altered immune state and, as a natural perturbation, this provides an opportunity to understand functional interactions of the immune system in vivo. We report characterisation of maternal peripheral immune phenotypes for 33 longitudinally sampled normal pregnancies, using clinical measurements of complete blood counts and major immune cell populations, as well as high parameter flow cytometry for 30 different leukocyte antigens characterising 79 cell populations, and monitoring of 1305 serum proteins using the SomaLogic platform. Cellular analyses characterised transient changes in T cell polarization, and more persistent alterations in T and B cell subset frequencies and activation. Serum proteomic analysis identified a novel set of 7 proteins that are predictive of gestational age: DDR1, PLAU, MRC1, ACP5, ROBO2, IGF2R, and GNS. We further show that gestational age can be predicted from the parameters obtained by complete blood count tests and clinical flow cytometry characterizing 5 major immune cell populations. Inferring gestational age from this routine clinical phenotyping data could be useful in resource limited settings which lack obstetric ultrasound. Overall, both the cellular and proteomic analyses validate previously reported phenotypic immunological changes of pregnancy, and uncover new alternations and predictive markers.
Richard Apps, Yuri Kotliarov, Foo Cheung, Kyu Lee Han, Jinguo Chen, Angelique Biancotto, Ashley L. Babyak, Huizhi Zhou, Rongye Shi, Lisa A. Barnhart, Sharon M. Osgood, Yasmine Belkaid, Steven M. Holland, John S. Tsang, Christa Zerbe
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine phosphatase, has been shown to control T cell function. We found that in vitro–activated B cells and B cells from various lupus-prone mice and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus display increased PP2A activity. To understand the contribution of PP2A to B cell function, we generated a Cd19CrePpp2r1afl/fl (flox/flox) mouse which lacks functional PP2A only in B cells. Flox/flox mice displayed reduced spontaneous germinal center formation and decreased responses to T cell-dependent and T-independent antigens, while their B cells responded poorly in vitro to stimulation with an anti-CD40 antibody or CpG in the presence of IL-4. Transcriptome and metabolome studies revealed altered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and purine/pyrimidine metabolism and increased expression of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in PP2A-deficient B cells. Our results demonstrate that PP2A is required for optimal B cell function and may contribute to increased B cell activity in systemic autoimmunity.
Esra Meidan, Hao Li, Wenliang Pan, Michihito Kono, Shuilian Yu, Vasileios C. Kyttaris, Christina Ioannidis, Noe Rodriguez Rodriguez, Jose C. Crispin, Sokratis A. Apostolidis, Pui Lee, John Manis, Amir Sharabi, Maria G. Tsokos, George C. Tsokos
Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthetase 1 (CTPS1) deficiency is caused by a unique homozygous frameshift splice mutation (c.1692-1G>C, p.T566Dfs26X). CTPS1-deficient patients display severe bacterial and viral infections. CTPS1 is responsible for CTP nucleotide de novo production involved in DNA/RNA synthesis. Herein, we characterized in depth lymphocyte defects associated with CTPS1 deficiency. Immune phenotyping performed in 7 patients showed absence or low numbers of mucosal-associated T cells, invariant NKT cells, memory B cells, and NK cells, whereas other subsets were normal. Proliferation and IL-2 secretion by T cells in response to TCR activation were markedly decreased in all patients, while other T cell effector functions were preserved. The CTPS1T566Dfs26X mutant protein was found to be hypomorphic, resulting in 80%–90% reduction of protein expression and CTPS activity in cells of patients. Inactivation of CTPS1 in a T cell leukemia fully abolished cell proliferation. Expression of CTPS1T566Dfs26X failed to restore proliferation of CTPS1-deficient leukemia cells to normal, except when forcing its expression to a level comparable to that of WT CTPS1. This indicates that CTPS1T566Dfs26X retained normal CTPS activity, and thus the loss of function of CTPS1T566Dfs26X is completely attributable to protein instability. This study supports that CTPS1 represents an attractive therapeutic target to selectively inhibit pathological T cell proliferation, including lymphoma.
Emmanuel Martin, Norbert Minet, Anne-Claire Boschat, Sylvia Sanquer, Steicy Sobrino, Christelle Lenoir, Jean Pierre de Villartay, Maria Leites-de-Moraes, Capucine Picard, Claire Soudais, Tim Bourne, Sophie Hambleton, Stephen M. Hughes, Robert F. Wynn, Tracy A. Briggs, Genomics England Research Consortium, Smita Patel, Monica G. Lawrence, Alain Fischer, Peter D. Arkwright, Sylvain Latour
Diabetes is a significant risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis. In this study, we used a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the effect of prior Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. We found that, at 6–7 months after Mtb infection, 90% of the Mtb-infected T2DM mice died, whereas only 50% of BCG-vaccinated T2DM-Mtb–infected mice died. Moreover, 40% of the PBS-treated uninfected T2DM mice and 30% of the uninfected BCG-vaccinated T2DM mice died, whereas all uninfected and infected nondiabetic mice survived. BCG vaccination was less effective in reducing the lung bacterial burden of Mtb-infected T2DM mice compared with Mtb-infected nondiabetic mice. BCG vaccination significantly reduced lung inflammation in Mtb-infected T2DM mice compared with that of unvaccinated T2DM mice infected with Mtb. Furthermore, reduced mortality of BCG-vaccinated Mtb-infected T2DM mice is associated with expansion of IL-13–producing CXCR3+ Tregs in the lungs of Mtb-infected T2DM mice. Recombinant IL-13 and Tregs from BCG-vaccinated Mtb-infected T2DM mice converted proinflammatory M1 macrophages to antiinflammatory M2 macrophages. Our findings suggest a potentially novel role for BCG in preventing excess inflammation and mortality in T2DM mice infected with Mtb.
Rajesh Kumar Radhakrishnan, Ramya Sivangala Thandi, Deepak Tripathi, Padmaja Paidipally, Madeline Kay McAllister, Sachin Mulik, Buka Samten, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HSV-1 both can cause genital herpes, a chronic infection that establishes a latent reservoir in the nervous system. Clinically, the recurrence frequency of HSV-1 genital herpes is considerably less than HSV-2 genital herpes, which correlates with reduced neuronal infection. The factors dictating the disparate outcomes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital herpes are unclear. In this study, we show that vaginal infection of mice with HSV-1 leads to the rapid appearance of mature DCs in the draining lymph node, which is dependent on an early burst of NK cell–mediated IFN-γ production in the vagina that occurs after HSV-1 infection but not HSV-2 infection. Rapid DC maturation after HSV-1 infection, but not HSV-2 infection, correlates with the accelerated generation of a neuroprotective T cell response and early accumulation of IFN-γ–producing T cells at the site of infection. Depletion of T cells or loss of IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) expression in sensory neurons both lead to a marked loss of neuroprotection only during HSV-1, recapitulating a prominent feature of HSV-2 infection. Our experiments reveal key differences in host control of neuronal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection after genital exposure of mice, and they define parameters of a successful immune response against genital herpes.
Aisha G. Lee, Jason M. Scott, Maria Rita Fabbrizi, Xiaoping Jiang, Dorothy K. Sojka, Mark J. Miller, Megan T. Baldridge, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Haina Shin
CD137 (4-1BB) is a member of the TNFR superfamily that represents a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. Recent insights into the function of TNFR agonist antibodies implicate epitope, affinity, and IgG subclass as critical features, and these observations help explain the limited activity and toxicity seen with clinically tested CD137 agonists. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CTX-471, a fully human IgG4 agonist of CD137 that engages a unique epitope that is shared by human, cynomolgus monkey, and mouse and is associated with a differentiated pharmacology and toxicology profile. In vitro, CTX-471 increased IFN-γ production by human T cells in an Fcγ receptor–dependent (FcγR-dependent) manner, displaying an intermediate level of activity between 2 clinical-stage anti-CD137 antibodies. In mice, CTX-471 exhibited curative monotherapy activity in various syngeneic tumor models and showed a unique ability to cure mice of very large (~500 mm3) tumors compared with validated antibodies against checkpoints and TNFR superfamily members. Extremely high doses of CTX-471 were well tolerated, with no signs of hepatic toxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that CTX-471 is a unique CD137 agonist that displays an excellent safety profile and an unprecedented level of monotherapy efficacy against very large tumors.
Ugur Eskiocak, Wilson Guzman, Benjamin Wolf, Christine Cummings, Lauren Milling, Hsin-Jung Wu, Michael Ophir, Conner Lambden, Pearl Bakhru, Dana C. Gilmore, Samantha Ottinger, Lucy Liu, William K. McConaughy, Sunny Q. He, Chao Wang, Cheuk Lun Leung, Jason Lajoie, William F. Carson IV, Nora Zizlsperger, Michael M. Schmidt, Ana C. Anderson, Piotr Bobrowicz, Thomas J. Schuetz, Robert Tighe
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