The red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion is a multi-parametric response that occurs during storage at 4°C, but its impact on transfused patients remains unclear. In studies of the RBC storage lesion, the temperature transition from cold storage to normal body temperature that occurs during transfusion has received limited attention. We hypothesized that multiple deleterious events might occur in this period of increasing temperature. We show dramatic alterations in several properties of therapeutic blood units stored at 4°C after warming them to normal body temperature (37°C), as well as febrile temperature (40°C). In particular, the intracellular content and redox state of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADP(H)] were directly affected by post-storage incubation at 37°C, as well as by pro-oxidant storage conditions. Modulation of the NADPH-producing pentose phosphate pathway, but not the prevention of hemoglobin autoxidation by conversion of oxyhemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin, provided protection against storage-induced alterations in RBCs, demonstrating the central role of NADPH in mitigating increased susceptibility of stored RBCs to oxidative stress. We propose that assessing RBCs oxidative status after restoration of body temperature provides a sensitive tool to detect storage-related alterations, and has the potential to improve the quality of stored RBCs for transfusion.
Aline Roch, Nicholas J. Magon, Jessica Maire, Cacang Suarna, Anita Ayer, Sophie Waldvogel, Beat. A. Imhof, Mark J. Koury, Roland Stocker, Marc Schapira
Excessive vascular remodeling is characteristic of hemophilic arthropathy (HA) and may contribute to joint bleeding and the progression of HA. Mechanisms for pathological vascular remodeling after hemophilic joint bleeding are unknown. In hemophilia, activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is impaired, which contributes to joint bleeding and may also underlie the aberrant vascular remodeling. Here, hemophilia A (FVIII-deficient) mice or TAFI-deficient mice with transient (antibody-induced) hemophilia A were used to determine the role of FVIII and TAFI in vascular remodeling after joint bleeding. Excessive vascular remodeling and vessel enlargement persisted in FVIII-deficient and TAFI-deficient but not in transient hemophilia WT mice after similar joint bleeding. TAFI-overexpression in FVIII-deficient mice prevented abnormal vessel enlargement and vascular leakage. Age-related vascular changes were observed with FVIII or TAFI deficiency, and correlated positively with bleeding severity after injury, supporting increased vascularity as a major contributor to joint bleeding. Antibody-mediated inhibition of uPA also prevented abnormal vascular remodeling, suggesting that TAFI’s protective effects include inhibition of uPA-mediated plasminogen activation. In conclusion, the functional TAFI deficiency in hemophilia drives maladaptive vascular remodeling in the joints after bleeding. These new mechanistic insights allow targeted development of new strategies to normalize vascularity and control re-bleeding in HA.
Tine Wyseure, Tingyi Yang, Jenny Y. Zhou, Esther J. Cooke, Bettina Wanko, Merissa Olmer, Ruchi Agashe, Yosuke Morodomi, Niels Behrendt, Martin Lotz, John Morser, Annette von Drygalski, Laurent O. Mosnier
BACKGROUND Cytokine biomarkers have already been used to predict acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) onset, nonrelapse mortality, and overall survival in human and mouse models, but the consistency of the consequences between patients and mice has not been evaluated. Furthermore, no study about any biomarker or biomarker panel for aGVHD grading or steroid sensitivity of aGVHD patients simultaneously has been reported.METHODS Here we established an aGVHD mouse model and explored the relation between aGVHD onset and variations of some cytokines. Based on the results and latest progress, we selected 16 cytokines and compared their serum variations in aGVHD patients and non-aGVHD patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Using protein microarray, we explored the relation between the cytokine levels and aGVHD-related events (onset, grading, and steroid sensitivity).RESULTS The increase of chemokine levels in murine aGVHD was very consistent with that of patients. We found obviously higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, Elafin, sST2, TLR4, and TNF-α, and lower levels of TGF-β in both aGVHD mouse models and aGVHD patients. In addition, patients with severe aGVHD showed increased IL-6, TLR4, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), and Elafin and decreased TGF-β. TLR4 and TNFR1 were significantly increased in steroid-refractory aGVHD patients compared with steroid-effective patients (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION A combination of TLR4, TNFR1, TGF-β, and Elafin could be a new 4-biomarker panel to assist aGVHD diagnosis, grading, and evaluation of steroid sensitivity for clinical aGVHD patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1900022292 “Clinical Research of Umbilical Cord–Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in the Prophylaxis of Graft-Versus-Host Disease After HLA-Haploidentical Stem-Cell Transplantation.”FUNDING National Key Research Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chongqing Social Career and People’s Livelihood Security Science and Technology Innovation Project, Fundamental and Frontier Research Program of Chongqing, and Foundation of Xinqiao Hospital.
Xiaoping Li, Ting Chen, Qiangguo Gao, Wei Zhang, Yunshuo Xiao, Wen Zhu, Lingyu Zeng, Zhenyu Li, Shijie Yang, Rui Wang, Xiaoqi Wang, Yimei Feng, Xi Zhang
The complex process of platelet formation originates with the hematopoietic stem cell, which differentiates through the myeloid lineage, matures, and releases proplatelets into the BM sinusoids. How formed platelets maintain a low basal activation state in the circulation remains unknown. We identify Lepr+ stromal cells lining the BM sinusoids as important contributors to sustaining low platelet activation. Ablation of murine Lepr+ cells led to a decreased number of platelets in the circulation with an increased activation state. We developed a potentially novel culture system for supporting platelet formation in vitro using a unique population of CD51+PDGFRα+ perivascular cells, derived from human umbilical cord tissue, which display numerous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) properties. Megakaryocytes cocultured with MSCs had altered LAT and Rap1b gene expression, yielding platelets that are functional with low basal activation levels, a critical consideration for developing a transfusion product. Identification of a regulatory cell that maintains low baseline platelet activation during thrombopoiesis opens up new avenues for improving blood product production ex vivo.
Avital Mendelson, Ana Nicolle Strat, Weili Bao, Peter Rosston, Georgia Fallon, Sophie Ohrn, Hui Zhong, Cheryl Lobo, Xiuli An, Karina Yazdanbakhsh
Advances in genomic medicine have elucidated an increasing number of genetic etiologies for patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, there is heterogeneity in clinical and immunophenotypic presentations and a limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of many cases. The primary defects in CVID may extend beyond the adaptive immune system, and the combined defect in both the myeloid and lymphoid compartments suggests the mechanism may involve bone marrow output and earlier progenitors. Using the methylation profile of the human androgen receptor (AR) gene as a surrogate epigenetic marker for bone marrow clonality, we examined the hematopoietic compartments of patients with CVID. Our data show that clonal hematopoiesis is common among patients with adult-onset CVID who do not have associated noninfectious complications. Nonblood tissues did not show a skewed AR methylation status, supporting a model of an acquired clonal hematopoietic event. Attenuation of memory B cell differentiation into long-lived plasma cells (CD20–CD27+CD38+CD138+) was associated with marked changes in the postdifferentiation methylation profile, demonstrating the functional consequence of clonal hematopoiesis on humoral immunity in these patients. This study sheds light on a potential etiology of a subset of patients with CVID, and the findings suggest that it is a stage of an acquired lymphocyte maturation disorder.
Gabriel K. Wong, Sara Barmettler, James M. Heather, David Millar, Sarah A. Penny, Aarnoud Huissoon, Alex Richter, Mark Cobbold
BACKGROUND. Autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for R/R B-NHL, while chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy targeting CD19 emerges as an alternative strategy. Here we report a comparative analysis of the two strategies in a single center. METHODS. We performed a prospective single-arm study of CAR-T therapy in 29 patients with R/R B-NHL and compared the outcomes with contemporaneous 27 patients who received ASCT. NHL was diagnosed by histopathological assessments, and the safety and efficacy were compared. RESULTS. The CAR-T group exhibited better rates of CR (48.0% vs. 20.8%, P=0.046) and one-year OS (74.4% vs. 44.5%, P=0.044) compared with the ASCT group. Subpopulation analysis showed that patients with IPI scores ≥ 3 achieved significantly higher ORR and CR rates in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (ORR: 72.0% vs. 10.0%, P=0.002; CR: 38.9% vs 0% P=0.030, respectively). The most common severe adverse events in the CAR-T group were cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and infection compared with cytopenia, gastrointestinal toxicity and infection in the ASCT group. Additionally, the incidence of non-hematologic severe adverse events (SAEs) was markedly lower in the CAR-T group than in the ASCT group (20.7% vs. 48.1% P=0.030). CONCLUSION. CAR-T therapy exhibited superior clinical outcomes in safety and efficacy over ASCT in patients with R/R B-NHL, suggesting CAR-T may be a recommended alternative to ASCT.
Caixia Li, Ying Zhang, Changfeng Zhang, Jia Chen, Xiaoyan Lou, Xiaochen Chen, Liqing Kang, Nan Xu, Minghao Li, Jingwen Tan, Xiuli Sun, Jin Zhou, Zhen Yang, Xiangping Zong, Pu Wang, Ting Xu, Changju Qu, Haiwen Huang, Zhengming Jin, Lei Yu, Depei Wu
Adeno-associated-viral (AAV) vector liver-directed gene therapy (GT) for hemophilia B (HB) is limited by a vector-dose-dependent hepatotoxicity. Recently, this obstacle has been partially circumvented by the use of a hyperactive factor IX (FIX) variant, R338L (Padua), which has an eightfold increased specific activity compared to FIX-WT. FIX-R338L has emerged as the standard for HB GT. However, the underlying mechanism of its hyperactivity is undefined; as such, safety concerns of unregulated coagulation and the potential for thrombotic complications have not been fully addressed. To this end, we evaluated the enzymatic and clotting activity as well as the activation, inactivation, and cofactor-dependence of FIX-R338L relative to FIX-WT. We observed that the high-specific-activity of FIX-R338L requires factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) cofactor. In a novel system utilizing emicizumab, a FVIII-mimicking bispecific antibody, the hyperactivity of both recombinant FIX-R338L and AAV-mediated-transgene-expressed FIX-R338L from HB GT subjects is ablated without FVIIIa activity. We conclude that the molecular regulation of activation, inactivation, and cofactor-dependence of FIX-R338L is similar to FIX-WT, but that the FVIIIa-dependent hyperactivity of FIX-R338L is the result of a faster rate of factor X activation. This mechanism helps mitigate safety concerns of unregulated coagulation and supports the expanded use of FIX-R338L in HB therapy.
Benjamin J. Samelson-Jones, Jonathan D. Finn, Lindsey A. George, Rodney M. Camire, Valder R. Arruda
Inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a breakthrough therapy for certain B cell lymphomas and B cell chronic lymphatic leukemia. Covalent BTK inhibitors (e.g., ibrutinib) bind to cysteine C481, and mutations of this residue confer clinical resistance. This has led to the development of noncovalent BTK inhibitors that do not require binding to cysteine C481. These new compounds are now entering clinical trials. In a systematic BTK mutagenesis screen, we identify residues that are critical for the activity of noncovalent inhibitors. These include a gatekeeper residue (T474) and mutations in the kinase domain. Strikingly, co-occurrence of gatekeeper and kinase domain lesions (L512M, E513G, F517L, L547P) in cis results in a 10- to 15-fold gain of BTK kinase activity and de novo transforming potential in vitro and in vivo. Computational BTK structure analyses reveal how these lesions disrupt an intramolecular mechanism that attenuates BTK activation. Our findings anticipate clinical resistance mechanisms to a new class of noncovalent BTK inhibitors and reveal intramolecular mechanisms that constrain BTK’s transforming potential.
Shenqiu Wang, Sayan Mondal, Chunying Zhao, Marjan Berishaj, Phani Ghanakota, Connie Lee Batlevi, Ahmet Dogan, Venkatraman E. Seshan, Robert Abel, Michael R. Green, Anas Younes, Hans-Guido Wendel
Many cytokines and chemokines that are important for hematopoiesis activate the PI3K signaling pathway. Because this pathway is frequently mutated and activated in cancer, PI3K inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of several malignancies, and are now being tested in the clinic in combination with chemotherapy. However, the role of PI3K in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), particularly during hematopoietic stress, is still unclear. We previously showed that the individual PI3K catalytic isoforms P110α or P110β have dispensable roles in HSC function, suggesting redundancy between PI3K isoforms in HSCs. We now demonstrate that simultaneous deletion of P110α and P110δ in double knockout (DKO) HSCs uncovers their redundant requirement in HSC cycling after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy administration. In contrast, DKO HSCs are still able to exit quiescence in response to other stress stimuli, such as LPS. We found that DKO HSCs and progenitors have impaired sensing of inflammatory signals ex vivo, and that levels of IL1-β and MIG are higher in the bone marrow after LPS than after 5-FU administration. Furthermore, exogenous in vivo administration of IL1-β can induce cell cycle entry of DKO HSCs. Our findings have important clinical implications for the use of PI3K inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy.
Shayda Hemmati, Taneisha Sinclair, Meng Tong, Boris Bartholdy, Rachel O. Okabe, Kristina Ames, Leanne Ostrodka, Tamanna Haque, Imit Kaur, Taylor S. Mills, Anupriya Agarwal, Eric M. Pietras, Jean J. Zhao, Thomas M. Roberts, Kira Gritsman
Monosomy 7 or deletion of 7q (del(7q)) are common clonal cytogenetic abnormalities associated with high grade myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) arising in inherited and acquired bone marrow failure. Current non-transplant approaches to treat marrow failure may be complicated by stimulation of clonal outgrowth. To study the biological consequences of del(7q) within the context of a failing marrow, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients with Shwachman Diamond Syndrome (SDS), a bone marrow failure disorder with MDS predisposition, and genomically engineered a 7q deletion. The TGFβ pathway was the top differentially regulated pathway in transcriptomic analysis of SDS versus SDSdel(7q) iPSCs. SMAD2 phosphorylation was increased in SDS relative to wild type cells consistent with hyperactivation of the TGFbeta pathway in SDS. Phospho-SMAD2 levels were reduced following 7q deletion in SDS cells and increased upon restoration of 7q diploidy. Inhibition of the TGFbeta pathway rescued hematopoiesis in SDS-iPSCs and in bone marrow hematopoietic cells from SDS patients while it had no impact on the SDSdel(7q) cells. These results identified a potential targetable vulnerability to improve hematopoiesis in an MDS-predisposition syndrome, and highlight the importance of the germline context of somatic alterations to inform precision medicine approaches to therapy.
Melisa Ruiz-Gutierrez, Özge Vargel Bölükbaşi, Gabriela Alexe, Andriana G. Kotini, Kaitlyn Ballotti, Cailin E. Joyce, David W. Russell, Kimberly Stegmaier, Kasiani Myers, Carl D. Novina, Eirini P. Papapetrou, Akiko Shimamura
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