Defects in genes mediating thyroid hormone biosynthesis result in dyshormonogenic congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Here, we report homozygous truncating mutations in SLC26A7 in 6 unrelated families with goitrous CH and show that goitrous hypothyroidism also occurs in Slc26a7-null mice. In both species, the gene is expressed predominantly in the thyroid gland, and loss of function is associated with impaired availability of iodine for thyroid hormone synthesis, partially corrected in mice by iodine supplementation. SLC26A7 is a member of the same transporter family as SLC26A4 (pendrin), an anion exchanger with affinity for iodide and chloride (among others), whose gene mutations cause congenital deafness and dyshormonogenic goiter. However, in contrast to pendrin, SLC26A7 does not mediate cellular iodide efflux and hearing in affected individuals is normal. We delineate a hitherto unrecognized role for SLC26A7 in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, for which the mechanism remains unclear.
Hakan Cangul, Xiao-Hui Liao, Erik Schoenmakers, Jukka Kero, Sharon Barone, Panudda Srichomkwun, Hideyuki Iwayama, Eva G. Serra, Halil Saglam, Erdal Eren, Omer Tarim, Adeline K. Nicholas, Ilona Zvetkova, Carl A. Anderson, Fiona E. Karet Frankl, Kristien Boelaert, Marja Ojaniemi, Jarmo Jääskeläinen, Konrad Patyra, Christoffer Löf, E. Dillwyn Williams, UK10K Consortium, Manoocher Soleimani, Timothy Barrett, Eamonn R. Maher, V. Krishna Chatterjee, Samuel Refetoff, Nadia Schoenmakers
Intestinal epithelial barrier repair is vital for remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Extracellular adenosine signaling has been implicated in promoting restoration of epithelial barrier function. Currently, no clinically approved agents target this pathway. Adenosine signaling is terminated by uptake from the extracellular space via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). We hypothesized that ENT inhibition could dampen intestinal inflammation. Initial studies demonstrated transcriptional repression of ENT1 and ENT2 in IBD biopsies or in murine IBD models. Subsequent studies in mice with global Ent1 or Ent2 deletion revealed selective protection of Ent2–/– mice. Elevated intestinal adenosine levels in conjunction with abolished protection following pharmacologic blockade of A2B adenosine receptors implicate adenosine signaling as the mechanism of gut protection in Ent2–/– mice. Additional studies in mice with tissue-specific deletion of Ent2 uncovered epithelial Ent2 as the target. Moreover, intestinal protection provided by a selective Ent2 inhibitor was abolished in mice with epithelium-specific deletion of Ent2 or the A2B adenosine receptor. Taken together, these findings indicate that increased mucosal A2B signaling following repression or deletion of epithelial Ent2 coordinates the resolution of intestinal inflammation. This study suggests the presence of a targetable purinergic network within the intestinal epithelium designed to limit tissue inflammation.
Carol M. Aherne, Colm B. Collins, Caroline R. Rapp, Kristine E. Olli, Loni Perrenoud, Paul Jedlicka, Jessica L. Bowser, Tingting W. Mills, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Michael R. Blackburn, Holger K. Eltzschig
Despite the initial promise of immunotherapy for CNS disease, multiple recent clinical trials have failed. This may be due in part to characteristically low penetration of antibodies to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma, resulting in poor target engagement. We here utilized transcranial macroscopic imaging to noninvasively evaluate in vivo delivery pathways of CSF fluorescent tracers. Tracers in CSF proved to be distributed through a brain-wide network of periarterial spaces, previously denoted as the glymphatic system. CSF tracer entry was enhanced approximately 3-fold by increasing plasma osmolality without disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Further, plasma hyperosmolality overrode the inhibition of glymphatic transport that characterizes the awake state and reversed glymphatic suppression in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Plasma hyperosmolality enhanced the delivery of an amyloid-β (Aβ) antibody, obtaining a 5-fold increase in antibody binding to Aβ plaques. Thus, manipulation of glymphatic activity may represent a novel strategy for improving penetration of therapeutic antibodies to the CNS.
Benjamin A. Plog, Humberto Mestre, Genaro E. Olveda, Amanda M. Sweeney, H. Mark Kenney, Alexander Cove, Kosha Y. Dholakia, Jeffrey Tithof, Thomas D. Nevins, Iben Lundgaard, Ting Du, Douglas H. Kelley, Maiken Nedergaard
Neuroinflammation is a recognized pathogenic mechanism underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the inflammatory mechanisms influencing peripheral motor axon degeneration remain largely unknown. A recent report showed a pathogenic role for c-Kit–expressing mast cells mediating inflammation and neuromuscular junction denervation in muscles from SOD1G93A rats. Here, we have explored whether mast cells infiltrate skeletal muscles in autopsied muscles from ALS patients. We report that degranulating mast cells were abundant in the quadriceps muscles from ALS subjects but not in controls. Mast cells were associated with myofibers and motor endplates and, remarkably, interacted with neutrophils forming large extracellular traps. Mast cells and neutrophils were also abundant around motor axons in the extensor digitorum longus muscle, sciatic nerve, and ventral roots of symptomatic SOD1G93A rats, indicating that immune cell infiltration extends along the entire peripheral motor pathway. Postparalysis treatment of SOD1G93A rats with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug masitinib prevented mast cell and neutrophil infiltration, axonal pathology, secondary demyelination, and the loss of type 2B myofibers, compared with vehicle-treated rats. These findings provide further evidence for a yet unrecognized contribution of immune cells in peripheral motor pathway degeneration that can be therapeutically targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Emiliano Trias, Peter H. King, Ying Si, Yuri Kwon, Valentina Varela, Sofía Ibarburu, Mariángeles Kovacs, Ivan C. Moura, Joseph S. Beckman, Olivier Hermine, Luis Barbeito
Physiological and premature aging are frequently associated with an accumulation of prelamin A, a precursor of lamin A, in the nuclear envelope of various cell types. Here, we aimed to underpin the hitherto unknown mechanisms by which prelamin A alters myonuclear organization and muscle fiber function. By experimentally studying membrane-permeabilized myofibers from various transgenic mouse lines, our results indicate that, in the presence of prelamin A, the abundance of nuclei and myosin content is markedly reduced within muscle fibers. This leads to a concept by which the remaining myonuclei are very distant from each other and are pushed to function beyond their maximum cytoplasmic capacity, ultimately inducing muscle fiber weakness.
Yotam Levy, Jacob A. Ross, Marili Niglas, Vladimir A. Snetkov, Steven Lynham, Chen-Yu Liao, Megan J. Puckelwartz, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Elizabeth M. McNally, Manfred Alsheimer, Stephen D.R. Harridge, Stephen G. Young, Loren G. Fong, Yaiza Español, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Brian K. Kennedy, Dawn A. Lowe, Julien Ochala
We hypothesized that the gut microbiota influences survival of murine cardiac allografts through modulation of immunity. Antibiotic pretreated mice received vascularized cardiac allografts and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), along with tacrolimus immunosuppression. FMT source samples were from normal, pregnant (immune suppressed), or spontaneously colitic (inflammation) mice. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum (B. pseudolongum) in pregnant FMT recipients was associated with prolonged allograft survival and lower inflammation and fibrosis, while normal or colitic FMT resulted in inferior survival and worse histology. Transfer of B. pseudolongum alone resulted in reduced inflammation and fibrosis. Stimulation of DC and macrophage lines with B. pseudolongum induced the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 and homeostatic chemokine CCL19 but induced lesser amounts of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. In contrast, LPS and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (D. desulfuricans), more abundant in colitic FMT, induced a more inflammatory cytokine response. Analysis of mesenteric and peripheral lymph node structure showed that B. pseudolongum gavage resulted in a higher laminin α4/α5 ratio in the lymph node cortical ridge, indicative of a suppressive environment, while D. desulfuricans resulted in a lower laminin α4/α5 ratio, supportive of inflammation. Discrete gut bacterial species alter immunity and may predict graft outcomes through stimulation of myeloid cells and shifts in lymph node structure and permissiveness.
Jonathan S. Bromberg, Lauren Hittle, Yanbao Xiong, Vikas Saxena, Eoghan M. Smyth, Lushen Li, Tianshu Zhang, Chelsea Wagner, W. Florian Fricke, Thomas Simon, Colin C. Brinkman, Emmanuel F. Mongodin
Maternal obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) during the perinatal period have documented short- and long-term adverse outcomes for offspring. However, the mechanisms of maternal HFD effects on neonatal offspring are unclear. While the effects of maternal HFD exposure during pregnancy on the offspring are increasingly being appreciated, we do not know if maternal HFD alters the microbiota or affects neonatal susceptibility to inflammatory conditions, nor the mechanisms involved. In this study, we show that the offspring of mothers exposed to HFD develop a unique microbiota, marked by expansion of Firmicutes, and an increase in IL-17–producing type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). The expansion of ILC3s was recapitulated through neocolonization with HFD microbiota alone. Further, the HFD offspring were susceptible to a neonatal model of inflammation that was reversible with IL-17 blockade. Collectively, these data suggest a previously unknown and unique role for ILC3s in the promotion of an early inflammatory susceptibility in the offspring of mothers exposed to HFD.
Sarah Thomas Babu, Xinying Niu, Megan Raetz, Rashmin C. Savani, Lora V. Hooper, Julie Mirpuri
Sudden death is the most common mode of exodus in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HFpEF, improving diastolic function and prolonging survival. We tested the hypothesis that CDCs decrease ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and thereby possibly contribute to prolonged survival. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet to induce HFpEF. Allogeneic rat CDCs (or phosphate-buffered saline as placebo) were injected in rats with echo-verified HFpEF. CDC-injected HFpEF rats were less prone to VA induction by programmed electrical stimulation. Action potential duration (APD) was shortened, and APD homogeneity was increased by CDC injection. Transient outward potassium current density was upregulated in cardiomyocytes from CDC rats relative to placebo, as were the underlying transcript (Kcnd3) and protein (Kv4.3) levels. Fibrosis was attenuated in CDC-treated hearts, and survival was increased. Sudden death risk also trended down, albeit nonsignificantly. CDC therapy decreased VA in HFpEF rats by shortening APD, improving APD homogeneity, and decreasing fibrosis. Unlike other stem/progenitor cells, which often exacerbate arrhythmias, CDCs reverse electrical remodeling and suppress arrhythmogenesis in HFpEF.
Jae Hyung Cho, Peter J. Kilfoil, Rui Zhang, Ryan E. Solymani, Catherine Bresee, Elliot M. Kang, Kristin Luther, Russell G. Rogers, Geoffrey de Couto, Joshua I. Goldhaber, Eduardo Marbán, Eugenio Cingolani
Pituitary corticotroph somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5) signals to inhibit adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. As ACTH deficiency results in attenuated adrenal cortisol production and an impaired stress response, we sought to clarify the role of SSTR5 in modifying the hypothalamic/pituitary/adrenal (HPA) axis. We generated Tg HP5 mice overexpressing SSTR5 in pituitary corticotrophs that produce the ACTH precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Basal ACTH and corticosterone were similar in HP5 and WT mice, while HP5 mice showed attenuated ACTH and corticosterone responses to corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). HP5 mice exhibited attenuated corticosterone responses upon a restraint stress test and inflammatory stress following LPS injection, as well as increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior on open field and forced swim tests. Pituitary corticotroph CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1) mRNA expression and ACTH responses to CRH were also attenuated in HP5 mice. In AtT20 cells stably overexpressing SSTR5, CRHR1 expression and cAMP response to CRH were reduced, whereas both were increased after SSTR5 KO. In elucidating mechanisms for these observations, we show that SSTR5-induced miR-449c suppresses both CRHR1 expression and function. We conclude that corticotroph SSTR5 attenuates HPA axis responses via CRHR1 downregulation, suggesting a role for SSTR5 in the pathogenesis of secondary adrenal insufficiency.
Masaaki Yamamoto, Anat Ben-Shlomo, Hiraku Kameda, Hidenori Fukuoka, Nan Deng, Yan Ding, Shlomo Melmed
BACKGROUND. Crohn’s disease (CD) is highly heterogeneous, due in large part to variability in cellular processes that underlie the natural history of CD, thereby confounding effective therapy. There is a critical need to advance understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive CD heterogeneity. METHODS. We performed small RNA sequencing of adult colon tissue from CD and NIBD controls. Colonic epithelial cells and immune cells were isolated from colonic tissues, and microRNA-31 (miR-31) expression was measured. miR-31 expression was measured in colonoid cultures generated from controls and patients with CD. We performed small RNA-sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon and ileum biopsies from treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD and controls and collected data on disease features and outcomes. RESULTS. Small RNA-sequencing and microRNA profiling in the colon revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes, each with different clinical associations. Notably, we found that miR-31 expression was a driver of these 2 subtypes and, further, that miR-31 expression was particularly pronounced in epithelial cells. Colonoids revealed that miR-31 expression differences are preserved in this ex vivo system. In adult patients, low colonic miR-31 expression levels at the time of surgery were associated with worse disease outcome as measured by need for an end ileostomy and recurrence of disease in the neoterminal ileum. In pediatric patients, lower miR-31 expression at the time of diagnosis was associated with future development of fibrostenotic ileal CD requiring surgery CONCLUSIONS. These findings represent an important step forward in designing more effective clinical trials and developing personalized CD therapies. FUNDING. This work was supported by CCF Career Development Award (SZS), R01-ES024983 from NIEHS (SZS and TSF), 1R01DK104828-01A1 from NIDDK (SZS and TSF), P01-DK094779-01A1 from NIDDK (SZS), P30-DK034987 from NIDDK (SZS), 1-16-ACE-47 ADA Pathway Award (PS), UNC Nutrition Obesity Research Center Pilot & Feasibility Grant P30DK056350 (PS), CCF PRO-KIIDS NETWORK (SZS and PS), UNC CGIBD T32 Training Grant from NIDDK (JBB), T32 Training Grant (5T32GM007092-42) from NIGMS (MH), and SHARE from the Helmsley Trust (SZS). The UNC Translational Pathology Laboratory is supported, in part, by grants from the National Cancer Institute (3P30CA016086) and the UNC University Cancer Research Fund (UCRF) (PS).
Benjamin P. Keith, Jasmine B. Barrow, Takahiko Toyonaga, Nevzat Kazgan, Michelle Hoffner O’Connor, Neil D. Shah, Matthew S. Schaner, Elisabeth A. Wolber, Omar K. Trad, Greg R. Gipson, Wendy A. Pitman, Matthew Kanke, Shruti J. Saxena, Nicole Chaumont, Timothy S. Sadiq, Mark J. Koruda, Paul A. Cotney, Nancy Allbritton, Dimitri G. Trembath, Francisco Sylvester, Terrence S. Furey, Praveen Sethupathy, Shehzad Z. Sheikh
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