Background: There is growing evidence to suggest that the brain is an important target for insulin action, and that states of insulin resistance may extend to the CNS with detrimental effects on cognitive functioning. Although the effect of systemic insulin resistance on peripheral organs is well-studied, the degree to which insulin impacts brain function in vivo remains unclear. Methods: This randomized, single-blinded, 2-way-crossover, sham-controlled, pilot study determined the effects of hyperinsulinemia on fMRI brain activation during a 2-back working memory task in 9 healthy older adults (aged 57-79 years). Each participant underwent two clamp procedures (an insulin infusion and a saline placebo infusion, with normoglycemia maintained during both conditions), to examine the effects of hyperinsulinemia on task performance and associated blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal using fMRI. Results: Hyperinsulinemia (compared to saline control) was associated with an increase in both the spatial extent and relative strength of task-related BOLD signal during the 2-back task. Further, the degree of increased task-related activation in select brain regions correlated with greater systemic insulin sensitivity, as well as decreased reaction times and performance accuracy between experimental conditions. Conclusion: Together, these findings provide evidence of insulin action in the CNS among older adults during periods of sustained cognitive demand, with the greatest effects noted for individuals with highest systemic insulin sensitivity. Funding: This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (5R21AG051958, 2016).
Victoria J. Williams, Bianca A. Trombetta, Rabab Z. Jafri, Aaron M. Koenig, Chase D. Wennick, Becky C. Carlyle, Laya Ekhlaspour, Rexford S. Ahima, Steven J. Russell, David H. Salat, Steven E. Arnold
Cellular senescence is a tumor suppressive mechanism that can paradoxically contribute to aging pathologies. Despite evidence of immune clearance in mouse models, it is not known how senescent cells (SnCs) persist and accumulate with age or in tumors in individuals. Here, we identify cooperative mechanisms that orchestrate the immunoevasion and persistence of normal and cancer human SnCs through extracellular targeting of natural killer receptor signaling. Damaged SnCs avoid immune recognition through MMPs-dependent shedding of NKG2D-ligands reinforced via paracrine suppression of NKG2D receptor-mediated immunosurveillance. These coordinated immunoediting processes are evident in residual, drug-resistant tumors from cohorts of >700 prostate and breast cancer patients treated with senescence-inducing genotoxic chemotherapies. Unlike in mice, these reversible senescence-subversion mechanisms are independent of p53/p16 and exacerbated in oncogenic RAS-induced senescence. Critically, the p16INK4A tumor suppressor can disengage the senescence growth arrest from the damage-associated immune senescence program, which is manifest in benign nevi lesions where indolent SnCs accumulate over time and preserve a non-pro-inflammatory tissue microenvironment maintaining NKG2D-mediated immunosurveillance. Our study shows how subpopulations of SnCs elude immunosurveillance, and reveals secretome-targeted therapeutic strategies to selectively eliminate –and restore the clearance of– the detrimental SnCs that actively persist after chemotherapy and accumulate at sites of aging pathologies.
Denise P. Muñoz, Steve M. Yannone, Anneleen Daemen, Yu Sun, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Misako Kawahara, Adam M. Freund, Francis Rodier, Jennifer D. Wu, Pierre-Yves Desprez, David H. Raulet, Peter S. Nelson, Laura J. van 't Veer, Judith Campisi, Jean-Philippe Coppé
The bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) contributes to the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, though its role in age-associated lineage skewing is poorly understood. Here we show that dysfunction of aged marrow macrophages (Mφs) directs HSC platelet-bias. Mφs from the marrow of aged mice and humans exhibited an activated phenotype, with increased expression of inflammatory signals. Aged marrow Mφs also displayed decreased phagocytic function. Senescent neutrophils, typically cleared by marrow Mφs, were markedly increased in aged mice, consistent with functional defects in Mφ phagocytosis and efferocytosis. In aged mice, Interleukin 1B (IL1B) was elevated in the bone marrow and caspase 1 activity, which can process pro-IL1B, was increased in marrow Mφs and neutrophils. Mechanistically, IL1B signaling was necessary and sufficient to induce a platelet bias in HSCs. In young mice, depletion of phagocytic cell populations or loss of the efferocytic receptor Axl expanded platelet-biased HSCs. Our data support a model wherein increased inflammatory signals and decreased phagocytic function of aged marrow Mφs induce the acquisition of platelet bias in aged HSCs. This work highlights the instructive role of Mφs and IL1B in the age-associated lineage-skewing of HSCs, and reveals the therapeutic potential of their manipulation as antigeronic targets.
Benjamin J. Frisch, Corey M. Hoffman, Sarah E. Latchney, Mark W. LaMere, Jason Myers, John Ashton, Allison J. Li, Jerry Saunders, James Palis, Archibald S. Perkins, Amanda McCabe, Julianne N. Smith, Kathleen E. McGrath, Fatima Rivera-Escalera, Andrew McDavid, Jane L. Liesveld, Vyacheslav A. Korshunov, Michael R. Elliott, Katherine C. MacNamara, Michael W. Becker, Laura M. Calvi
Senescent cells (SnCs) are increasingly recognized as central effector cells in age-related pathologies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potential cellular communication tools through which SnCs exert central effector functions in the local tissue environment. To test this hypothesis in a medical indication that could be validated clinically, we evaluated EV production from SnCs enriched from chondrocytes isolated from human arthritic cartilage. EV production increased in a dose-responsive manner as the concentration of SnCs increased. The EVs were capable of transferring senescence to nonsenescent chondrocytes and inhibited cartilage formation by non-SnCs. microRNA (miR) profiles of EVs isolated from human arthritic synovial fluid did not fully overlap with the senescent chondrocyte EV profiles. The effect of SnC clearance was tested in a murine model of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. miR and protein profiles changed after senolytic treatment but varied depending on age. In young animals, senolytic treatment altered expression of miR-34a, -30c, -125a, -24, -92a, -150, and -186, and this expression correlated with cartilage production. The primary changes in EV contents in aged mice after senolytic treatment, which only reduced pain and degeneration, were immune related. In sum, EV contents found in synovial fluid may serve as a diagnostic for arthritic disease and indicator for therapeutic efficacy of senolytic treatment.
Ok Hee Jeon, David R. Wilson, Cristina C. Clement, Sona Rathod, Christopher Cherry, Bonita Powell, Zhenghong Lee, Ahmad M. Khalil, Jordan J. Green, Judith Campisi, Laura Santambrogio, Kenneth W. Witwer, Jennifer H. Elisseeff
BACKGROUND. The relation between the menopause transition (MT) and changes in body composition or weight remains uncertain. We hypothesized that, independent of chronological aging, the MT would have a detrimental influence on body composition. METHODS. Participants were from the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) cohort. We assessed body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable mixed effects regressions fitted piece-wise linear models to repeated measures of outcomes as a function of time before or after the final menstrual period (FMP). Covariates were age at FMP, race, study site, and hormone therapy. RESULTS. Fat and lean mass increased prior to the MT. At the start of the MT, rate of fat gain doubled, and lean mass declined; gains and losses continued until 2 years after the FMP. After that, the trajectories of fat and lean mass decelerated to zero slope. Weight climbed linearly during premenopause without acceleration at the MT. Its trajectory became flat after the MT. CONCLUSION. Accelerated gains in fat mass and losses of lean mass are MT-related phenomena. The rate of increase in the sum of fat mass and lean mass does not differ between premenopause and the MT; thus, there is no discernable change in rate of weight gain at the start of the MT. FUNDING. NIH, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), through the National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Nursing Research, and NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health (U01NR004061, U01AG012505, U01AG012535, U01AG012531, U01AG012539, U01AG012546, U01AG012553, U01AG012554, and U01AG012495).
Gail A. Greendale, Barbara Sternfeld, MeiHua Huang, Weijuan Han, Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez, Kristine Ruppert, Jane A. Cauley, Joel S. Finkelstein, Sheng-Fang Jiang, Arun S. Karlamangla
Cancer incidence increases with age, but paradoxically, cancers have been found to grow more quickly in young mice compared with aged ones. The cause of differential tumor growth has been debated and, over time, attributed to faster tumor cell proliferation, decreased tumor cell apoptosis, and/or increased angiogenesis in young animals. Despite major advances in our understanding of tumor immunity over the past 2 decades, little attention has been paid to comparing immune cell populations in young and aged mice. Using mouse colon adenocarcinoma model MC38 implanted in young and mature mice, we show that age substantially influences the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which control cancer progression. The different tumor growth pace in young and mature mice was abrogated in RAG1null mice, which lack mature T and B lymphocytes, and upon selective depletion of endogenous CD8+ cells. Transcriptome analysis further indicated that young mice have decreased levels of the Itga4 gene (CD49d, VLA-4) in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes when compared with mature mice. Hypothesizing that VLA-4 can have a tumor-protective effect, we depleted the protein, which resulted in accelerated tumor growth in mature mice. These observations may explain the paradoxical growth rates observed in murine cancers, point to the central role of VLA-4 in controlling tumor growth, and open new venues to therapeutic manipulation.
Juhyun Oh, Angela Magnuson, Christophe Benoist, Mikael J. Pittet, Ralph Weissleder
Physiological and premature aging are frequently associated with an accumulation of prelamin A, a precursor of lamin A, in the nuclear envelope of various cell types. Here, we aimed to underpin the hitherto unknown mechanisms by which prelamin A alters myonuclear organization and muscle fiber function. By experimentally studying membrane-permeabilized myofibers from various transgenic mouse lines, our results indicate that, in the presence of prelamin A, the abundance of nuclei and myosin content is markedly reduced within muscle fibers. This leads to a concept by which the remaining myonuclei are very distant from each other and are pushed to function beyond their maximum cytoplasmic capacity, ultimately inducing muscle fiber weakness.
Yotam Levy, Jacob A. Ross, Marili Niglas, Vladimir A. Snetkov, Steven Lynham, Chen-Yu Liao, Megan J. Puckelwartz, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Elizabeth M. McNally, Manfred Alsheimer, Stephen D.R. Harridge, Stephen G. Young, Loren G. Fong, Yaiza Español, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Brian K. Kennedy, Dawn A. Lowe, Julien Ochala
The maintenance of effective immunity over time is dependent on the capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to sustain the pool of immunocompetent mature cells. Decline of immune competence with old age may stem from HSC defects, including reduced self-renewal potential and impaired lymphopoiesis, as suggested in murine models. To obtain further insights into aging-related alteration of hematopoiesis, we performed a comprehensive study of blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from older humans. In the elderly, HPCs present active oxidative phosphorylation and are pressed to enter cell cycling. However, p53-p21 and p15 cell senescence pathways, associated with telomerase activity deficiency, strong telomere attrition, and oxidative stress, are engaged, thus limiting cell cycling. Moreover, survival of old HPCs is impacted by pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. Lastly, telomerase activity deficiency and telomere length attrition of old HPCs may be passed on to progeny cells such as naive T lymphocytes, further highlighting the poor hematopoietic potential of the elderly. This pre-senescent profile is characteristic of the multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting HPCs in elderly individuals and represents a major obstacle in terms of immune reconstitution and efficacy with advanced age.
Tinhinane Fali, Véronique Fabre-Mersseman, Takuya Yamamoto, Charles Bayard, Laura Papagno, Solène Fastenackels, Rima Zoorab, Richard A. Koup, Jacques Boddaert, Delphine Sauce, Victor Appay
Macrophage aging is pathogenic in diseases of the elderly, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in older adults. However, the role of microRNAs, which modulate immune processes, in regulating macrophage dysfunction and thereby promoting age-associated diseases is underexplored. Here, we report that microRNA-150 (miR-150) coordinates transcriptomic changes in aged murine macrophages, especially those associated with aberrant lipid trafficking and metabolism in AMD pathogenesis. Molecular profiling confirmed that aged murine macrophages exhibit dysregulated ceramide and phospholipid profiles compared with young macrophages. Of translational relevance, upregulation of miR-150 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly associated with increased odds of AMD, even after controlling for age. Mechanistically, miR-150 directly targets stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2, which coordinates macrophage-mediated inflammation and pathologic angiogenesis, as seen in AMD, in a VEGF-independent manner. Together, our results implicate miR-150 as pathogenic in AMD and provide potentially novel molecular insights into diseases of aging.
Jonathan B. Lin, Harsh V. Moolani, Abdoulaye Sene, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Joseph B. Lin, Zhenyu Dong, Norimitsu Ban, Daniel S. Ory, Rajendra S. Apte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent and devastating condition for which no curative treatment is available. Exaggerated lung cell senescence may be a major pathogenic factor. Here, we investigated the potential role for mTOR signaling in lung cell senescence and alterations in COPD using lung tissue and derived cultured cells from patients with COPD and from age- and sex-matched control smokers. Cell senescence in COPD was linked to mTOR activation, and mTOR inhibition by low-dose rapamycin prevented cell senescence and inhibited the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype. To explore whether mTOR activation was a causal pathogenic factor, we developed transgenic mice exhibiting mTOR overactivity in lung vascular cells or alveolar epithelial cells. In this model, mTOR activation was sufficient to induce lung cell senescence and to mimic COPD lung alterations, with the rapid development of lung emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, and inflammation. These findings support a causal relationship between mTOR activation, lung cell senescence, and lung alterations in COPD, thereby identifying the mTOR pathway as a potentially new therapeutic target in COPD.
Amal Houssaini, Marielle Breau, Kanny Kebe, Shariq Abid, Elisabeth Marcos, Larissa Lipskaia, Dominique Rideau, Aurelien Parpaleix, Jin Huang, Valerie Amsellem, Nora Vienney, Pierre Validire, Bernard Maitre, Aya Attwe, Christina Lukas, David Vindrieux, Jorge Boczkowski, Genevieve Derumeaux, Mario Pende, David Bernard, Silke Meiners, Serge Adnot
No posts were found with this tag.