We describe a protective effect on autoimmune diabetes and reduced destructive insulitis in NOD.scid recipients following splenocyte injections from diabetic NOD donors and sorted CD19+ cells compared with NOD.scid recipients receiving splenocytes alone. This protective effect was age specific (only CD19+ cells from young NOD donors exerted this effect; P < 0.001). We found that the CD19+IgM+ cell is the primary subpopulation of B cells that delayed transfer of diabetes mediated by diabetogenic T cells from NOD mice (P = 0.002). Removal of IgM+ cells from the CD19+ pool did not result in protection. Notably, protection conferred by CD19+IgM+ cotransfers were not dependent on the presence of Tregs, as their depletion did not affect their ability to delay onset of diabetes. Blockade of IL-10 with neutralizing antibodies at the time of CD19+ cell cotransfers also abrogated the therapeutic effect, suggesting that IL-10 secretion was an important component of protection. These results were strengthened by ex vivo incubation of CD19+ cells with IL-5, resulting in enhanced proliferation and IL-10 production and equivalently delayed diabetes progression (P = 0.0005). The potential to expand CD19+IgM+ cells, especially in response to IL-5 stimulation or by pharmacologic agents, may be a new therapeutic option for type 1 diabetes.
Andrew D. Vonberg, Maria Acevedo-Calado, Aaron R. Cox, Susan L. Pietropaolo, Roberto Gianani, Steven K. Lundy, Massimo Pietropaolo
Guidelines: The Editorial Board will only consider letters that we deem relevant and of interest to our readers. We will not post data that have not been subjected to peer review, nor will we post letters that are essentially a reiteration of another letter. All accepted letters will be posted on our website within one week of acceptance. We reserve the right to edit any letter for length, content, and clarity. Authors of all accepted letters will be asked to preview any changes. Authors will be notified by e-mail if their letters were not accepted. As this is a final decision, no appeals will be considered.
Specific requirements: All letters must be 400 words or fewer. You may enter the letter as plain text or HTML. The author's name and e-mail address are required, and will be posted with the letter. All possible conflicts of interest must be noted, even if they are not posted. If you wish to include a figure (keep in mind that non-peer-reviewed data will not be posted), please contact the editors directly at firstname.lastname@example.org.