Restoring blood flow after myocardial infarction (MI) is essential for survival of existing and newly regenerated tissue. Endogenous vascular repair processes are deployed following injury but are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether developmental mechanisms of coronary vessel formation are intrinsically reactivated in the adult mouse after MI. Using pulse-chase genetic lineage tracing, we establish that de novo vessel formation constitutes a substantial component of the neovascular response, with apparent cellular contributions from the endocardium and coronary sinus. The adult heart reverts to its former hypertrabeculated state and repeats the process of compaction, which may facilitate endocardium-derived neovascularization. The capacity for angiogenic sprouting of the coronary sinus vein, the adult derivative of the sinus venosus, may also reflect its embryonic origin. The quiescent epicardium is reactivated and, while direct cellular contribution to new vessels is minimal, it supports the directional expansion of the neovessel network toward the infarcted myocardium. Thymosin β4, a peptide with roles in vascular development, was required for endocardial compaction, epicardial vessel expansion, and smooth muscle cell recruitment. Insight into pathways that regulate endogenous vascular repair, drawing on comparisons with development, may reveal novel targets for therapeutically enhancing neovascularization.
Karina N. Dubé, Tonia M. Thomas, Sonali Munshaw, Mala Rohling, Paul R. Riley, Nicola Smart
Usage data is cumulative from December 2022 through December 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.