Cardiac hypertrophic remodeling during chronic hemodynamic stress is associated with a switch in preferred energy substrate from fatty acids to glucose, usually considered to be energetically favorable. The mechanistic interrelationship between altered energy metabolism, remodeling, and function remains unclear. The ROS-generating NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is upregulated in the overloaded heart, where it ameliorates adverse remodeling. Here, we show that Nox4 redirects glucose metabolism away from oxidation but increases fatty acid oxidation, thereby maintaining cardiac energetics during acute or chronic stresses. The changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism are interlinked via a Nox4-ATF4–dependent increase in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which mediates the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) to the fatty acid transporter CD36 and enhances fatty acid utilization. These data uncover a potentially novel redox pathway that regulates protein O-GlcNAcylation and reprograms cardiac substrate metabolism to favorably modify adaptation to chronic stress. Our results also suggest that increased fatty acid oxidation in the chronically stressed heart may be beneficial.
Adam A. Nabeebaccus, Anna Zoccarato, Anne D. Hafstad, Celio X.C. Santos, Ellen Aasum, Alison C. Brewer, Min Zhang, Matteo Beretta, Xiaoke Yin, James A. West, Katrin Schröder, Julian L. Griffin, Thomas R. Eykyn, E. Dale Abel, Manuel Mayr, Ajay M. Shah
Usage data is cumulative from December 2017 through September 2018.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.