Immunoglobulin (IG) replacement products are used routinely in patients with immune deficiency and other immune dysregulation disorders who have poor responses to vaccination and require passive immunity conferred by commercial antibody products. The binding, neutralizing, and protective activity of intravenously administered IG against SARS-CoV-2 emerging variants remains unknown. Here, we tested 198 different IG products manufactured from December 2019 to August 2022. We show that prepandemic IG had no appreciable cross-reactivity or neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Anti-spike antibody titers and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 D614G increased gradually after the pandemic started and reached levels comparable to vaccinated healthy donors 18 months after the diagnosis of the first COVID-19 case in the United States in January 2020. The average time between production to infusion of IG products was 8 months, which resulted in poor neutralization of the variant strain circulating at the time of infusion. Despite limited neutralizing activity, IG prophylaxis with clinically relevant dosing protected susceptible K18-hACE2–transgenic mice against clinical disease, lung infection, and lung inflammation caused by the XBB.1.5 Omicron variant. Moreover, following IG prophylaxis, levels of XBB.1.5 infection in the lung were higher in FcγR-KO mice than in WT mice. Thus, IG replacement products with poor neutralizing activity against evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants likely confer protection to patients with immune deficiency disorders through Fc effector function mechanisms.
Ofer Zimmerman, Alexa Michelle Altman Doss, Baoling Ying, Chieh-Yu Liang, Samantha R. Mackin, Hannah G. Davis-Adams, Lucas J. Adams, Laura A. VanBlargan, Rita E. Chen, Suzanne M. Scheaffer, Pritesh Desai, Saravanan Raju, Tarisa L. Mantia, Caitlin C. O’Shaughnessy, Jennifer Marie Monroy, H. James Wedner, Christopher J. Rigell, Andrew L. Kau, Tiffany Biason Dy, Zhen Ren, Jackson S. Turner, Jane A. O’Halloran, Rachel M. Presti, Peggy L. Kendall, Daved H. Fremont, Ali H. Ellebedy, Michael S. Diamond