We previously reported that treatment of mice with 6-gingerol, the most abundant phytochemical in ginger root, leads to phosphodiesterase inhibition that counteracts neutrophil hyperactivity in models of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and lupus. Here, we explored the extent to which oral intake of a whole-ginger extract would similarly impact neutrophils in both autoimmune mice and healthy humans. In vitro, a solubilized ginger extract was able to attenuate neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) by human neutrophils through a mechanism that was dependent upon the cyclic AMP–dependent kinase, protein kinase A. When mice with features of either APS or lupus were administered a ginger extract orally, they demonstrated reduced circulating NETs, as well as the tempering of other disease outcomes, such as large-vein thrombosis (APS) and autoantibody production (lupus). In a pilot clinical trial, which was validated in a second cohort, daily intake of a ginger supplement for 7 days by healthy volunteers boosted neutrophil cAMP, inhibited NETosis in response to disease-relevant stimuli, and reduced circulating plasma NET levels. In summary, this work demonstrates that ginger intake restrains neutrophil hyperactivity in autoimmune mouse models and that ginger consumption by healthy individuals makes their neutrophils more resistant to NETosis.


Ramadan A. Ali, Valerie C. Minarchick, Miela Zahavi, Christine E. Rysenga, Kristin A. Sturm, Claire K. Hoy, Cyrus Sarosh, Jason S. Knight, M. Kristen Demoruelle


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