Uterine leiomyomas cause heavy menstrual bleeding, anemia, and pregnancy loss in millions of women worldwide. Driver mutations in the transcriptional mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) gene in uterine myometrial cells initiate 70% of leiomyomas that grow in a progesterone-dependent manner. We showed a distinct chromatin occupancy landscape of MED12 in mutant MED12 (mut-MED12) versus WT-MED12 leiomyomas. Integration of cistromic and transcriptomics data identified tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) as the top mut-MED12 target gene that was significantly upregulated in mut-MED12 leiomyomas when compared with adjacent myometrium and WT-MED12 leiomyomas. TDO2 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand that we confirmed to be significantly elevated in mut-MED12 leiomyomas. Treatment of primary mut-MED12 leiomyoma cells with tryptophan or kynurenine stimulated AHR nuclear translocation, increased proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and induced AHR-target gene expression, whereas blocking the TDO2/kynurenine/AHR pathway by siRNA or pharmacological treatment abolished these effects. Progesterone receptors regulated the expression of AHR and its target genes. In vivo, TDO2 expression positively correlated with the expression of genes crucial for leiomyoma growth. In summary, activation of the TDO2/kynurenine/AHR pathway selectively in mut-MED12 leiomyomas promoted tumor growth and may inform the future development of targeted treatments and precision medicine.
Azna Zuberi, Yongchao Huang, Ariel J. Dotts, Helen Wei, John S. Coon V, Shimeng Liu, Takashi Iizuka, Olivia Wu, Olivia Sotos, Priyanka Saini, Debabrata Chakravarti, Thomas G. Boyer, Yang Dai, Serdar E. Bulun, Ping Yin