Histopathology, the standard method to assess BM in hematologic malignancies such as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suffers from notable limitations in both research and clinical settings. BM biopsies in patients fail to detect disease heterogeneity, may yield a nondiagnostic sample, and cannot be repeated frequently in clinical oncology. Endpoint histopathology precludes monitoring disease progression and response to therapy in the same mouse over time, missing likely variations among mice. To overcome these shortcomings, we used MRI to measure changes in cellularity, macromolecular constituents, and fat versus hematopoietic cells in BM using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer, and chemical shift–encoded fat imaging. Combining metrics from these imaging parameters revealed dynamic alterations in BM following myeloablative radiation and transplantation. In a mouse MPLW515L BM transplant model of MPN, MRI detected effects of a JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, within 5 days of initiating treatment and identified differing kinetics of treatment responses in subregions of the tibia. Histopathology validated the MRI results for BM composition and heterogeneity. Anatomic MRI scans also showed reductions in spleen volume during treatment. These findings establish an innovative, clinically translatable MRI approach to quantify spatial and temporal changes in BM in MPN.


Tanner H. Robison, Manisha Solipuram, Kevin Heist, Ghoncheh Amouzandeh, Winston Y. Lee, Brock A. Humphries, Johanna M. Buschhaus, Avinash Bevoor, Anne Zhang, Kathryn E. Luker, Kristen Pettit, Moshe Talpaz, Dariya Malyarenko, Thomas L. Chenevert, Brian D. Ross, Gary D. Luker


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