Recent clinical trials have shown promising results for the next-generation Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor evobrutinib in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). BTK has a central role in signaling pathways that govern the development of B cells. Whether and how BTK activity shapes B cells as key drivers of MS is currently unclear. Compared with levels of BTK protein, we found higher levels of phospho-BTK in ex vivo blood memory B cells from patients with relapsing-remitting MS and secondary progressive MS compared with controls. In these MS groups, BTK activity was induced to a lesser extent after anti-IgM stimulation. BTK positively correlated with CXCR3 expression, both of which were increased in blood B cells from clinical responders to natalizumab (anti–VLA-4 antibody) treatment. Under in vitro T follicular helper–like conditions, BTK phosphorylation was enhanced by T-bet–inducing stimuli, IFN-γ and CpG-ODN, while the expression of T-bet and T-bet–associated molecules CXCR3, CD21, and CD11c was affected by evobrutinib. Furthermore, evobrutinib interfered with in vitro class switching, as well as memory recall responses, and disturbed CXCL10-mediated migration of CXCR3+ switched B cells through human brain endothelial monolayers. These findings demonstrate a functional link between BTK activity and disease-relevant B cells and offer valuable insights into how next-generation BTK inhibitors could modulate the clinical course of patients with MS.
Liza Rijvers, Jamie van Langelaar, Laurens Bogers, Marie-José Melief, Steven C. Koetzier, Katelijn M. Blok, Annet F. Wierenga-Wolf, Helga E. de Vries, Jasper Rip, Odilia B.J. Corneth, Rudi W. Hendriks, Roland Grenningloh, Ursula Boschert, Joost Smolders, Marvin M. van Luijn
Usage data is cumulative from July 2022 through September 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.