BACKGROUND Prolonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODS Adult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR–positive (RT-PCR–positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1–3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTS Our cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSION We found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post–COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04373148.FUNDING NIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.
Xiaolin Jia, Shu Cao, Alexandra S. Lee, Monali Manohar, Sayantani B. Sindher, Neera Ahuja, Maja Artandi, Catherine A. Blish, Andra L. Blomkalns, Iris Chang, William J. Collins, Manisha Desai, Hena Naz Din, Evan Do, Andrea Fernandes, Linda N. Geng, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Megan Ruth Mahoney, Abigail L. Glascock, Lienna Y. Chan, Sharon Y. Fong, CLIAHUB Consortium, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Maira Phelps, Olivia Raeber, Stanford COVID-19 Biobank Study Group, Natasha Purington, Katharina Röltgen, Angela J. Rogers, Theo Snow, Taia T. Wang, Daniel Solis, Laura Vaughan, Michelle Verghese, Holden Maecker, Richard Wittman, Rajan Puri, Amy Kistler, Samuel Yang, Scott D. Boyd, Benjamin A. Pinsky, Sharon Chinthrajah, Kari C. Nadeau
Participant characteristics for negative controls