B cells within secondary lymphoid tissues encompass a diversity of activation states and multiple maturation processes that reflect antigen recognition and transition through the germinal center (GC) reaction, in which mature B cells differentiate into memory and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs). Here, utilizing single-cell RNA-seq, we identify a range of distinct activation and maturation states of tonsil-derived B cells. In particular, we identify what we believe is a previously uncharacterized CCL4/CCL3 chemokine–expressing B cell population with an expression pattern consistent with B cell receptor/CD40 activation. Furthermore, we present a computational method that leverages regulatory network inference and pseudotemporal modeling to identify upstream transcription factor modulation along a GC-to-ASC axis of transcriptional maturation. Our data set provides valuable insight into diverse B cell functional profiles and will be a useful resource for further studies into the B cell immune compartment.


Diego A. Espinoza, Carole Le Coz, Emylette Cruz Cabrera, Neil Romberg, Amit Bar-Or, Rui Li


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