Recent studies highlighted the clinicopathologic importance of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in delineating molecular attributes and therapeutic potentials. However, the overall TME cell infiltration landscape in nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been comprehensively characterized. In this study, we used consensus non-negative matrix factorization molecular subtyping to determine TME cell infiltration patterns and identified 3 TME clusters (TME-C1, -C2, -C3) characterized by distinct clinicopathologic features, infiltrating cells, and biological processes. Proteomics analyses revealed that cyclic GMP-AMP–stimulator of interferon genes immune signaling–mediated protein and phosphorylation levels were significantly upregulated in inflammation-related TME-C2 clusters. The score extracted from the TME-related signature (TMEsig-score) divided patients with NSCLC into high- and low-score subgroups, where a high score was associated with favorable prognosis and immune infiltration. The genomic landscape revealed that patients with low TMEsig-score harbored more somatic copy number alterations and higher mutation frequency of driver genes involving STK11, KEAP1, SMARCA4, and others. Drug sensitivity analyses suggested that tumors with high TMEsig-score were responsible for favorable clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. In summary, this study highlights that comprehensive recognizing of the TME cell infiltration landscape will contribute to enhancing our understanding of TME immune regulation and promote effectiveness of precision biotherapy strategies.
Hao Chen, Tongchao Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Hao Wu, Zhen Fang, Yang Liu, Yang Chen, Zhe Wang, Shengtao Jia, Xingzhao Ji, Liang Shang, Fengying Du, Jin Liu, Ming Lu, Wei Chong