Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in type IV collagen that leads to defective glomerular basement membrane, glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) damage, and progressive chronic kidney disease. While the genetic basis of AS is well known, the molecular and cellular mechanistic details of disease pathogenesis have been elusive, hindering the development of mechanism-based therapies. Here we performed intravital multiphoton imaging of the local kidney tissue microenvironment in a X-linked AS mouse model to directly visualize the major drivers of AS pathology. Severely distended glomerular capillaries and aneurysms were found accompanied by numerous microthrombi, increased glomerular endothelial surface layer (glycocalyx) and immune cell homing, GFB albumin leakage, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis by 5 months of age with an intermediate phenotype at 2 months. Renal histology in mouse or patient tissues largely failed to detect capillary aberrations. Treatment of AS mice with hyaluronidase or the ACE inhibitor enalapril reduced the excess glomerular endothelial glycocalyx and blocked immune cell homing, and GFB albumin leakage. This study identified central roles of glomerular mechanical forces and endothelial and immune cell activation early in AS, which could be therapeutically targeted to reduce mechanical strain and local tissue inflammation and improve kidney function.
Georgina Gyarmati, Urvi Nikhil Shroff, Audrey Izuhara, Xiaogang Hou, Stefano Da Sacco, Sargis Sedrakyan, Kevin V. Lemley, Kerstin Amann, Laura Perin, János Peti-Peterdi
Usage data is cumulative from November 2021 through December 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.