Exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) are abundantly expressed in the renal tubules. We used genetic and pharmacological tools in combination with balance, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches to examine the role of Epac1 and Epac2 in renal sodium handling. We demonstrate that Epac1–/– and Epac2–/– mice exhibit a delayed anti-natriuresis to dietary sodium restriction despite augmented aldosterone levels. This was associated with a significantly lower response to the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride, reduced ENaC activity in split-opened collecting ducts, and defective posttranslational processing of α and γENaC subunits in the KO mice fed with a Na+-deficient diet. Concomitant deletion of both isoforms led to a marginally greater natriuresis but further increased aldosterone levels. Epac2 blocker ESI-05 and Epac1&2 blocker ESI-09 decreased ENaC activity in Epac WT mice kept on the Na+-deficient diet but not on the regular diet. ESI-09 injections led to natriuresis in Epac WT mice on the Na+-deficient diet, which was caused by ENaC inhibition. In summary, our results demonstrate similar but nonredundant actions of Epac1 and Epac2 in stimulation of ENaC activity during variations in dietary salt intake. We speculate that inhibition of Epac signaling could be instrumental in treatment of hypertensive states associated with ENaC overactivation.
Viktor N. Tomilin, Kyrylo Pyrshev, Anna Stavniichuk, Naghmeh Hassanzadeh Khayyat, Guohui Ren, Oleg Zaika, Sherif Khedr, Alexander Staruschenko, Fang C. Mei, Xiaodong Cheng, Oleh Pochynyuk
Usage data is cumulative from December 2021 through July 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.