(A) Relationship between training and research awards for the 14 highest average training (F/K/T) and research awards (years 2010–2018). There is a positive linear relationship between the training and research award ranks for the top 7 institutions. The data follow a trend line with R = 0.9515. This relationship vanishes from the eighth ranked institution onward, and no apparent correlation is found for the training and research awards. (B) Paired institutional rankings for the 14 highest average training (F/K/T) and research awards in millions of dollars (years 2010–2018); blue indicates same rank for training and research awards, orange indicates higher rank for training awards, and green indicates higher rank for research awards. (C) Total training (F/K/T) awards as a percentage of all NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) in billions of dollars (years 2010–2018).