Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that presents with cardio-cutaneous-craniofacial defects. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents the major life-threatening presentation in NSML. Mutations in the PTPN11 gene that encodes for the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP), SHP2, represents the predominant cause of HCM in NSML. NSML-associated PTPN11 mutations render SHP2 catalytically inactive with an “open” conformation. NSML-associated PTPN11 mutations cause hypertyrosyl phosphorylation of the transmembrane glycoprotein, protein zero-related (PZR), resulting in increased SHP2 binding. Here we show that NSML mice harboring a tyrosyl phosphorylation–defective mutant of PZR (NSML/PZRY242F) that is defective for SHP2 binding fail to develop HCM. Enhanced AKT/S6 kinase signaling in heart lysates of NSML mice was reversed in NSML/PZRY242F mice, demonstrating that PZR/SHP2 interactions promote aberrant AKT/S6 kinase activity in NSML. Enhanced PZR tyrosyl phosphorylation in the hearts of NSML mice was found to drive myocardial fibrosis by engaging an Src/NF-κB pathway, resulting in increased activation of IL-6. Increased expression of IL-6 in the hearts of NSML mice was reversed in NSML/PZRY242F mice, and PZRY242F mutant fibroblasts were defective for IL-6 secretion and STAT3-mediated fibrogenesis. These results demonstrate that NSML-associated PTPN11 mutations that induce PZR hypertyrosyl phosphorylation trigger pathophysiological signaling that promotes HCM and cardiac fibrosis.
Jae-Sung Yi, Sravan Perla, Liz Enyenihi, Anton M. Bennett