Rituximab, a B cell–depleting therapy, is indicated for treating a growing number of autoantibody-mediated autoimmune disorders. However, relapses can occur after treatment, and autoantibody-producing B cell subsets may be found during relapses. It is not understood whether these autoantibody-producing B cell subsets emerge from the failed depletion of preexisting B cells or are generated de novo. To further define the mechanisms that cause postrituximab relapse, we studied patients with autoantibody-mediated muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG) who relapsed after treatment. We carried out single-cell transcriptional and B cell receptor profiling on longitudinal B cell samples. We identified clones present before therapy that persisted during relapse. Persistent B cell clones included both antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells characterized by gene expression signatures associated with B cell survival. A subset of persistent antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells were specific for the MuSK autoantigen. These results demonstrate that rituximab is not fully effective at eliminating autoantibody-producing B cells and provide a mechanistic understanding of postrituximab relapse in MuSK MG.
Ruoyi Jiang, Miriam L. Fichtner, Kenneth B. Hoehn, Minh C. Pham, Panos Stathopoulos, Richard J. Nowak, Steven H. Kleinstein, Kevin C. O’Connor
Schematic diagram showing overall workflow from clinical data elements and sample collection to computational analysis of BCR repertoires along with a timeline of sample collection dates.