Severe obesity (SO) affects about 6% of youth in the United States, augmenting the risks for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Herein, we obtained paired omental adipose tissue (omVAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies from girls with SO undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG), to test whether differences in cellular and transcriptomic profiles between omVAT and SAT depots affect insulin sensitivity differently. Following weight loss, these analyses were repeated in a subgroup of subjects having a second SAT biopsy. We found that omVAT displayed smaller adipocytes compared with SAT, increased lipolysis through adipose triglyceride lipase phosphorylation, reduced inflammation, and increased expression of browning/beiging markers. Contrary to omVAT, SAT adipocyte diameter correlated with insulin resistance. Following SG, both weight and insulin sensitivity improved markedly in all subjects. SAT adipocytes’ size became smaller, showing increased lipolysis through perilipin 1 phosphorylation, decreased inflammation, and increased expression in browning/beiging markers. In summary, in adolescent girls with SO, both omVAT and SAT depots showed distinct cellular and transcriptomic profiles. Following weight loss, the SAT depot changed its cellular morphology and transcriptomic profiles into more favorable ones. These changes in the SAT depot may play a fundamental role in the resolution of insulin resistance.
Elena Tarabra, Jessica Nouws, Alla Vash-Margita, Geoffrey S. Nadzam, Rachel Goldberg, Michelle Van Name, Bridget Pierpont, James R. Knight, Gerald I. Shulman, Sonia Caprio