The maintenance of functional independence is the top priority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Defects in mitochondrial energetics may compromise physical performance and independence. We investigated associations of the presence and severity of kidney disease with in vivo muscle energetics and the association of muscle energetics with physical performance. We performed measures of in vivo leg and hand muscle mitochondrial capacity (ATPmax) and resting ATP turnover (ATPflux) using 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and oxygen uptake (O2 uptake) by optical spectroscopy in 77 people (53 participants with CKD and 24 controls). We measured physical performance using the 6-minute walk test. Participants with CKD had a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 33 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Participants with CKD had a –0.19 mM/s lower leg ATPmax compared with controls but no difference in hand ATPmax. Resting O2 uptake was higher in CKD compared with controls, despite no difference in ATPflux. ATPmax correlated with eGFR and serum bicarbonate among participants with GFR <60. ATPmax of the hand and leg correlated with 6-minute walking distance. The presence and severity of CKD associate with muscle mitochondrial capacity. Dysfunction of muscle mitochondrial energetics may contribute to reduced physical performance in CKD.


Bryan Kestenbaum, Jorge Gamboa, Sophia Liu, Amir S. Ali, Eric Shankland, Thomas Jue, Cecilia Giulivi, Lucas R. Smith, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Ian H. de Boer, Kevin Conley, Baback Roshanravan


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