Previous studies have shown an association between elevated atrial NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and decreased plasma apelin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), though the basis for this relationship is unclear. In the current study, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence studies of human right atrial appendages (RAAs) showed expression of the apelin receptor, APJ, and reduced apelin content in the atria, but not in plasma, of patients with AF versus normal sinus rhythm. Disruption of the apelin gene in mice increased (2.4-fold) NADPH-stimulated superoxide levels and slowed atrial conduction velocities in optical mapping of a Langendorff-perfused isolated heart model, suggesting that apelin levels may influence AF vulnerability. Indeed, in mice with increased AF vulnerability (induced by chronic intense exercise), apelin administration reduced the incidence and duration of induced atrial arrhythmias in association with prolonged atrial refractory periods. Moreover, apelin decreased AF induction in isolated atria from exercised mice while accelerating conduction velocity and increasing action potential durations. At the cellular level, these changes were associated with increased atrial cardiomyocyte sodium currents. These findings support the conclusion that reduced atrial apelin is maladaptive in fibrillating human atrial myocardium and that increasing apelin bioavailability may be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing AF.
Young M. Kim, Robert Lakin, Hao Zhang, Jack Liu, Ayaaz Sachedina, Maneesh Singh, Emily Wilson, Marco Perez, Subodh Verma, Thomas Quertermous, Jeffrey Olgin, Peter H. Backx, Euan A. Ashley
Usage data is cumulative from March 2022 through March 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.