PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint therapy for cancer is commonly considered to act by reactivating T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we present data from 2 mouse tumor models demonstrating an essential involvement of tumor-draining lymph nodes in PD-1 and PD-L1 therapeutic efficacy. Immune activation induced by checkpoint treatment was predominantly observed in the tumor-draining, but not nondraining, lymph nodes and was reflected in local accumulation of CD8+ T cells. Surgical resection of these lymph nodes, but not contralateral lymph nodes, abolished therapy-induced tumor regressions and was associated with decreased immune infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, inhibitor FTY720, which locks lymphocytes in lymph organs, also abrogated checkpoint therapy, suggesting that the tumor-draining lymph nodes function as sites of T cell invigoration required for checkpoint blockade therapy. Now that PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint treatment is applied in earlier clinical stages of cancer, our preclinical data advocate for enrolling patients with their tumor-draining lymph nodes still in place, to optimally engage the antitumor immune response and thereby enhance clinical benefit.
Marieke F. Fransen, Mark Schoonderwoerd, Philipp Knopf, Marcel G.M. Camps, Lukas J.A.C. Hawinkels, Manfred Kneilling, Thorbald van Hall, Ferry Ossendorp
Usage data is cumulative from December 2018 through March 2019.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.