Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a dynamic and complex tissue involved in regulation of bronchomotor tone, but the molecular events essential for the maintenance of ASM homeostasis are not well understood. Observational and genome-wide association studies in humans have linked airway function to the nutritional status of vitamin A and its bioactive metabolite retinoic acid (RA). Here, we provide evidence that ongoing RA signaling is critical for the regulation of adult ASM phenotype. By using dietary, pharmacologic, and genetic models in mice and humans, we show that (a) RA signaling is active in adult ASM in the normal lung, (b) RA-deficient ASM cells are hypertrophic, hypercontractile, profibrotic, but not hyperproliferative, (c) TGF-β signaling, known to cause ASM hypertrophy and airway fibrosis in human obstructive lung diseases, is hyperactivated in RA-deficient ASM, (d) pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of the TGF-β activity in ASM prevents the development of the aberrant phenotype induced by RA deficiency, and (e) the consequences of transient RA deficiency in ASM are long-lasting. These results indicate that RA signaling actively maintains adult ASM homeostasis, and disruption of RA signaling leads to aberrant ASM phenotypes similar to those seen in human chronic airway diseases such as asthma.
Felicia Chen, Fengzhi Shao, Anne Hinds, Sean Yao, Sumati Ram-Mohan, Timothy A. Norman, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Alan Fine
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