Corinne L. Williams
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations induce neural tissue hemangioblastomas, as well as highly vascularized clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). Pathological vessel remodeling arises from misregulation of HIFs and VEGF, among other genes. Variation in disease penetrance has long been recognized in relation to genotype. We show Vhl mutations also disrupt Notch signaling, causing mutation-specific vascular abnormalities, e.g., type 1 (null) vs. type 2B (murine G518A representing human R167Q). In conditional mutation retina vasculature, Vhl-null mutation (i.e., UBCCreER/+Vhlfl/fl) had little effect on initial vessel branching, but it severely reduced arterial and venous branching at later stages. Interestingly, this mutation accelerated arterial maturation, as observed in retina vessel morphology and aberrant α-smooth muscle actin localization, particularly in vascular pericytes. RNA sequencing analysis identified gene expression changes within several key pathways, including Notch and smooth muscle cell contractility. Notch inhibition failed to reverse later-stage branching defects but rescued the accelerated arterialization. Retinal vessels harboring the type 2B Vhl mutation (i.e., UBCCreER/+Vhlfl/2B) displayed stage-specific changes in vessel branching and an advanced progression toward an arterial phenotype. Disrupting Notch signaling in type 2B mutants increased both artery and vein branching and restored arterial maturation toward nonmutant levels. By revealing differential effects of the null and type 2B Vhl mutations on vessel branching and maturation, these data may provide insight into the variability of VHL-associated vascular changes — particularly the heterogeneity and aggressiveness in ccRCC vessel growth — and also suggest Notch pathway targets for treating VHL syndrome.
Alexandra Arreola, Laura Beth Payne, Morgan H. Julian, Aguirre A. de Cubas, Anthony B. Daniels, Sarah Taylor, Huaning Zhao, Jordan Darden, Victoria L. Bautch, W. Kimryn Rathmell, John C. Chappell
BACKGROUND. Constitutive activation of ERK1/2 occurs in various cancers, and its reactivation is a well-described resistance mechanism to MAPK inhibitors. ERK inhibitors may overcome the limitations of MAPK inhibitor blockade. The dual mechanism inhibitor SCH772984 has shown promising preclinical activity across various BRAFV600/RAS-mutant cancer cell lines and human cancer xenografts. METHODS. We have developed an orally bioavailable ERK inhibitor, MK-8353; conducted preclinical studies to demonstrate activity, pharmacodynamic endpoints, dosing, and schedule; completed a study in healthy volunteers (P07652); and subsequently performed a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors (MK-8353-001). In the P07652 study, MK-8353 was administered as a single dose in 10- to 400-mg dose cohorts, whereas in the MK-8353-001 study, MK-8353 was administered in 100- to 800-mg dose cohorts orally twice daily. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity were analyzed. RESULTS. MK-8353 exhibited comparable potency with SCH772984 across various preclinical cancer models. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the P07652 study, and twenty-six patients were enrolled in the MK-8353-001 study. Adverse events included diarrhea (44%), fatigue (40%), nausea (32%), and rash (28%). Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in the 400-mg and 800-mg dose cohorts. Sufficient exposure to MK-8353 was noted that correlated with biological activity in preclinical data. Three of fifteen patients evaluable for treatment response in the MK-8353-001 study had partial response, all with BRAFV600-mutant melanomas. CONCLUSION. MK-8353 was well tolerated up to 400 mg twice daily and exhibited antitumor activity in patients with BRAFV600-mutant melanoma. However, antitumor activity was not particularly correlated with pharmacodynamic parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01358331. FUNDING. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co. Inc., and NIH (P01 CA168585 and R35 CA197633).
Stergios J. Moschos, Ryan J. Sullivan, Wen-Jen Hwu, Ramesh K. Ramanathan, Alex A. Adjei, Peter C. Fong, Ronnie Shapira-Frommer, Hussein A. Tawbi, Joseph Rubino, Thomas S. Rush III, Da Zhang, Nathan R. Miselis, Ahmed A. Samatar, Patrick Chun, Eric H. Rubin, James Schiller, Brian J. Long, Priya Dayananth, Donna Carr, Paul Kirschmeier, W. Robert Bishop, Yongqi Deng, Alan Cooper, Gerald W. Shipps, Blanca Homet Moreno, Lidia Robert, Antoni Ribas, Keith T. Flaherty
Traditional pulmonary therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) target the downstream effects of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction (the cause of CF). Use of one such therapy, β-adrenergic bronchodilators (such as albuterol), is nearly universal for airway clearance. Conversely, novel modulator therapies restore function to select mutant CFTR proteins, offering a disease-modifying treatment. Recent trials of modulators targeting F508del-CFTR, the most common CFTR mutation, suggest that chronic β-agonist use may undermine clinical modulator benefits. We therefore sought to understand the impact of chronic or excess β-agonist exposure on CFTR activation in human airway epithelium. The present studies demonstrate a greater than 60% reduction in both wild-type and modulator-corrected F508del-CFTR activation following chronic exposure to short- and long-acting β-agonists. This reduction was due to reduced cellular generation of cAMP downstream of the β-2 adrenergic receptor–G protein complex. Our results point towards a posttranscriptional reduction in adenylyl cyclase function as the mechanism of impaired CFTR activation produced by prolonged β-agonist exposure. β-Agonist–induced CFTR dysfunction was sufficient to abrogate VX809/VX770 modulation of F508del-CFTR in vitro. Understanding the clinical relevance of our observations is critical for CF patients using these drugs, and for investigators to inform future CFTR modulator drug trials.
John J. Brewington, Jessica Backstrom, Amanda Feldman, Elizabeth L. Kramer, Jessica D. Moncivaiz, Alicia J. Ostmann, Xiaoting Zhu, L. Jason Lu, John P. Clancy
Mutations in KIT and TET2 are associated with myeloid malignancies. We show that loss of TET2-induced PI3K activation and -increased proliferation is rescued by targeting the p110α/δ subunits of PI3K. RNA-Seq revealed a hyperactive c-Myc signature in Tet2–/– cells, which is normalized by inhibiting PI3K signaling. Loss of TET2 impairs the maturation of myeloid lineage–derived mast cells by dysregulating the expression of Mitf and Cebpa, which is restored by low-dose ascorbic acid and 5-azacytidine. Utilizing a mouse model in which the loss of TET2 precedes the expression of oncogenic Kit, similar to the human disease, results in the development of a non–mast cell lineage neoplasm (AHNMD), which is responsive to PI3K inhibition. Thus, therapeutic approaches involving hypomethylating agents, ascorbic acid, and isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors are likely to be useful for treating patients with TET2 and KIT mutations.
Lakshmi Reddy Palam, Raghuveer Singh Mali, Baskar Ramdas, Sridhar Nonavinkere Srivatsan, Valeria Visconte, Ramon V. Tiu, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Axel Roers, Alexander Gerbaulet, Mingjiang Xu, Sarath Chandra Janga, Clifford M. Takemoto, Sophie Paczesny, Reuben Kapur
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) is a promising new modality for malignancies. Here, we report that adoptive T cell efficacy in tumor-bearing mice is significantly affected by differences in the native composition of the gut microbiome or treatment with antibiotics, or by heterologous fecal transfer. Depletion of bacteria with vancomycin decreased the rate of tumor growth in mice from The Jackson Laboratory receiving ACT, whereas treatment with neomycin and metronidazole had no effect, indicating the role of specific bacteria in host response. Vancomycin treatment induced an increase in systemic CD8α+ DCs, which sustained systemic adoptively transferred antitumor T cells in an IL-12–dependent manner. In subjects undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, we found that oral vancomycin also increased IL-12 levels. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an important role played by the gut microbiota in the antitumor effectiveness of ACT and suggest potentially new avenues to improve response to ACT by altering the gut microbiota.
Mireia Uribe-Herranz, Kyle Bittinger, Stavros Rafail, Sonia Guedan, Stefano Pierini, Ceylan Tanes, Alex Ganetsky, Mark A. Morgan, Saar Gill, Janos L. Tanyi, Frederic D. Bushman, Carl H. June, Andrea Facciabene
Progressive chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are on the rise worldwide. However, the sequence of events resulting in CKD progression remain poorly understood. Animal models of CKD exploring these issues are confounded by systemic toxicities or surgical interventions to acutely induce kidney injury. Here we report the generation of a CKD mouse model through the inducible podocyte-specific ablation of an essential endogenous molecule, the chromatin structure regulator CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), which leads to rapid podocyte loss (iCTCFpod–/–). As a consequence, iCTCFpod–/– mice develop severe progressive albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and impairment of renal function, and die within 8–10 weeks. CKD progression in iCTCFpod–/– mice leads to high serum phosphate and elevations in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone that rapidly cause bone mineralization defects, increased bone resorption, and bone loss. Dissection of the timeline leading to glomerular pathology in this CKD model led to the surprising observation that podocyte ablation and the resulting glomerular filter destruction is sufficient to drive progressive CKD and osteodystrophy in the absence of interstitial fibrosis. This work introduces an animal model with significant advantages for the study of CKD progression, and it highlights the need for podocyte-protective strategies for future kidney therapeutics.
Marta Christov, Abbe R. Clark, Braden Corbin, Samy Hakroush, Eugene P. Rhee, Hiroaki Saito, Dan Brooks, Eric Hesse, Mary Bouxsein, Niels Galjart, Ji Yong Jung, Peter Mundel, Harald Jüppner, Astrid Weins, Anna Greka
Myocardial infarctions (MIs) cause the loss of myocytes due to lack of sufficient oxygenation and latent revascularization. Although the administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces the size of infarctions and improves cardiac physiology in small-animal models of MI injury, the cellular targets of the HDACs, which the drugs inhibit, are largely unspecified. Here, we show that WNT-inducible secreted protein-1 (Wisp-1), a matricellular protein that promotes angiogenesis in cancers as well as cell survival in isolated cardiac myocytes and neurons, is a target of HDACs. Further, Wisp-1 transcription is regulated by HDACs and can be modified by the HDAC inhibitor, suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA/vorinostat), after MI injury. We observe that, at 7 days after MI, Wisp-1 is elevated 3-fold greater in the border zone of infarction in mice that experience an MI injury and are injected daily with SAHA, relative to MI alone. Additionally, human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) produce WISP-1 and are responsive to autocrine WISP-1–mediated signaling, which functionally promotes their proangiogenic behavior. Altering endogenous expression of WISP-1 in HCAECs directly impacts their network density in vitro. Therapeutic interventions after a heart attack define the extent of infarct injury, cell survival, and overall prognosis. Our studies shown here identify a potentially novel cardiac angiokine, Wisp-1, that may contribute to beneficial post-MI treatment modalities.
Lillianne H. Wright, Daniel J. Herr, Symone S. Brown, Harinath Kasiganesan, Donald R. Menick
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can arise from cardiac and vascular remodeling processes following long-lasting hypertension. Efficacy of common HF therapeutics is unsatisfactory in HFpEF. Evidence suggests that stimulators of the nitric oxide–sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) could be of use here. We aimed to characterize the complex cardiovascular effects of NOsGC stimulation using NO-independent stimulator BAY 41-8543 in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model of HFpEF. We show a drastically improved survival rate of treated dTGR. We observed less cardiac fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, and gap junction remodeling in treated dTGR. Microarray analysis revealed that treatment of dTGR corrected the dysregulateion of cardiac genes associated with fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and ion channel function toward an expression profile similar to healthy controls. Treatment reduced systemic blood pressure levels and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of resistance vessels. Further comprehensive in vivo phenotyping showed an improved diastolic cardiac function, improved hemodynamics, and less susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Short-term BAY 41-8543 application in isolated untreated transgenic hearts with structural remodeling significantly reduced the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, suggesting a direct nongenomic role of NOsGC stimulation on excitation. Thus, NOsGC stimulation was highly effective in improving several HFpEF facets in this animal model, underscoring its potential value for patients.
Nicola Wilck, Lajos Markó, András Balogh, Kristin Kräker, Florian Herse, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, István A. Szijártó, Maik Gollasch, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauss, Arnd Heuser, Damian Brockschnieder, Axel Kretschmer, Ralf Lesche, Florian Sohler, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Peter Sandner, Friedrich C. Luft, Dominik N. Müller, Ralf Dechend, Nadine Haase
The inverse relationship between gestational age at birth and postviral respiratory morbidity suggests that infants born preterm (PT) may miss a critical developmental window of T cell maturation. Despite a continued increase in younger PT survivors with respiratory complications, we have limited understanding of normal human fetal T cell maturation, how ex utero development in premature infants may interrupt normal T cell development, and whether T cell development has an effect on infant outcomes. In our longitudinal cohort of 157 infants born between 23 and 42 weeks of gestation, we identified differences in T cells present at birth that were dependent on gestational age and differences in postnatal T cell development that predicted respiratory outcome at 1 year of age. We show that naive CD4+ T cells shift from a CD31–TNF-α+ bias in mid gestation to a CD31+IL-8+ predominance by term gestation. Former PT infants discharged with CD31+IL8+CD4+ T cells below a range similar to that of full-term born infants were at an over 3.5-fold higher risk for respiratory complications after NICU discharge. This study is the first to our knowledge to identify a pattern of normal functional T cell development in later gestation and to associate abnormal T cell development with health outcomes in infants.
Kristin M. Scheible, Jason Emo, Nathan Laniewski, Andrea M. Baran, Derick R. Peterson, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Sanjukta Bandyopadhyay, Andrew G. Straw, Heidie Huyck, John M. Ashton, Kelly Schooping Tripi, Karan Arul, Elizabeth Werner, Tanya Scalise, Deanna Maffett, Mary Caserta, Rita M. Ryan, Anne Marie Reynolds, Clement L. Ren, David J. Topham, Thomas J. Mariani, Gloria S. Pryhuber
Recipient endogenous memory T cells with donor reactivity pose an important barrier to successful transplantation and costimulatory blockade–induced graft tolerance. Longer ischemic storage times prior to organ transplantation increase early posttransplant inflammation and negatively impact early graft function and long-term graft outcome. Little is known about the mechanisms enhancing endogenous memory T cell activation to mediate tissue injury within the increased inflammatory environment of allografts subjected to prolonged cold ischemic storage (CIS). Endogenous memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation is markedly increased within complete MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts subjected to prolonged versus minimal CIS, and the memory CD8+ T cells directly mediate CTLA-4Ig–resistant allograft rejection. Memory CD8+ T cell activation within allografts subjected to prolonged CIS requires memory CD4+ T cell stimulation of graft DCs to produce p40 homodimers, but not IL-12 p40/p35 heterodimers. Targeting p40 abrogates memory CD8+ T cell proliferation within the allografts and their ability to mediate CTLA-4Ig–resistant allograft rejection. These findings indicate a critical role for memory CD4+ T cell–graft DC interactions to increase the intensity of endogenous memory CD8+ T cell activation needed to mediate rejection of higher-risk allografts subjected to increased CIS.
Hidetoshi Tsuda, Charles A. Su, Toshiaki Tanaka, Katayoun Ayasoufi, Booki Min, Anna Valujskikh, Robert L. Fairchild
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an essential regulator of the differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. Our goal was to establish that PTEN loss promotes SMC dedifferentiation and pathological vascular remodeling in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries and nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries exposed to continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Arteries were categorized as nonatherosclerotic hyperplasia (NAH), atherosclerotic hyperplasia (AH), or complex plaque (CP). NAH coronary arteries from CF-LVAD patients were compared to NAH coronaries from non-LVAD patients. Intimal PTEN and SMC contractile protein expression was reduced compared with the media in arteries with NAH, AH, or CP. Compared with NAH, PTEN and SMC contractile protein expression was reduced in the media and intima of arteries with AH and CP. NAH arteries from CF-LVAD patients showed marked vascular remodeling and reduced PTEN and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) in medial SMCs compared with arteries from non-LVAD patients; this correlated with increased medial collagen deposition. Mechanistically, compared with ApoE–/– mice, SMC-specific PTEN-null/ApoE–/– double-knockout mice exhibited accelerated atherosclerosis progression and increased vascular fibrosis. By microarray and validated quantitative RT-PCR analysis, SMC PTEN deficiency promotes a global upregulation of proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. We propose that PTEN is an antiinflammatory, antifibrotic target that functions to maintain SMC differentiation. SMC loss of PTEN results in pathological vascular remodeling of human arteries.
Karen S. Moulton, Marcella Li, Keith Strand, Shawna Burgett, Penn McClatchey, Rebecca Tucker, Seth B. Furgeson, Sizhao Lu, Bruce Kirkpatrick, Joseph C. Cleveland, Raphael A. Nemenoff, Amrut V. Ambardekar, Mary C.M. Weiser-Evans
CHD7, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler, is disrupted in CHARGE syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variably penetrant abnormalities in craniofacial, cardiac, and nervous system tissues. The inner ear is uniquely sensitive to CHD7 levels and is the most commonly affected organ in individuals with CHARGE. Interestingly, upregulation or downregulation of retinoic acid (RA) signaling during embryogenesis also leads to developmental defects similar to those in CHARGE syndrome, suggesting that CHD7 and RA may have common target genes or signaling pathways. Here, we tested three separate potential mechanisms for CHD7 and RA interaction: (a) direct binding of CHD7 with RA receptors, (b) regulation of CHD7 levels by RA, and (c) CHD7 binding and regulation of RA-related genes. We show that CHD7 directly regulates expression of Aldh1a3, the gene encoding the RA synthetic enzyme ALDH1A3 and that loss of Aldh1a3 partially rescues Chd7 mutant mouse inner ear defects. Together, these studies indicate that ALDH1A3 acts with CHD7 in a common genetic pathway to regulate inner ear development, providing insights into how CHD7 and RA regulate gene expression and morphogenesis in the developing embryo.
Hui Yao, Sophie F. Hill, Jennifer M. Skidmore, Ethan D. Sperry, Donald L. Swiderski, Gilson J. Sanchez, Cynthia F. Bartels, Yehoash Raphael, Peter C. Scacheri, Shigeki Iwase, Donna M. Martin
EBV infection is associated with a number of malignancies of clinical unmet need, including Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric cancer, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), all of which express the EBV protein latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A), an antigen that is difficult to target by conventional antibody approaches. To overcome this, we utilized phage display technology and a structure-guided selection strategy to generate human T cell receptor–like (TCR-like) monoclonal antibodies with exquisite specificity for the LMP2A-derived nonamer peptide, C426LGGLLTMV434 (CLG), as presented on HLA-A*02:01. Our lead construct, clone 38, closely mimics the native binding mode of a TCR, recognizing residues at position P3–P8 of the CLG peptide. To enhance antitumor potency, we constructed dimeric T cell engaging bispecific antibodies (DiBsAb) of clone 38 and an affinity-matured version clone 38-2. Both DiBsAb showed potent antitumor properties in vitro and in immunodeficient mice implanted with EBV transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines and human T cell effectors. Clone 38 DiBsAb showed a stronger safety profile compared with its affinity-matured variant, with no activity against EBV– tumor cell lines and a panel of normal tissues, and was less cross-reactive against HLA-A*02:01 cells pulsed with a panel of CLG-like peptides predicted from a proteomic analysis. Clone 38 was also shown to recognize the CLG peptide on other HLA-A*02 suballeles, including HLA-A*02:02, HLA-A*02:04, and HLA-A*02:06, allowing for its potential use in additional populations. Clone 38 DiBsAb is a lead candidate to treat EBV malignancies with one of the strongest safety profiles documented for TCR-like mAbs.
Mahiuddin Ahmed, Andres Lopez-Albaitero, Dmitry Pankov, Brian H. Santich, Hong Liu, Su Yan, Jingyi Xiang, Pei Wang, Aisha N. Hasan, Annamalai Selvakumar, Richard J. O’Reilly, Cheng Liu, Nai-Kong V. Cheung
Neurodegeneration is a central aspect of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, the primary ocular complication associated with diabetes. While progress has been made to improve the vascular perturbations associated with diabetic retinopathy, there are still no treatment options to counteract the neuroretinal degeneration associated with diabetes. Our previous work suggested that the molecular chaperones α-crystallins could be involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy; however, the role and regulation of α-crystallins remained unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated the neuroprotective role of αA-crystallin during diabetes and its regulation by its phosphorylation on residue 148. We further characterized the dual role of αA-crystallin in neurons and glia, its essential role for neuronal survival, and its direct dependence on phosphorylation on this residue. These findings support further evaluation of αA-crystallin as a treatment option to promote neuron survival in diabetic retinopathy and neurodegenerative diseases in general.
Anne Ruebsam, Jennifer E. Dulle, Angela M. Myers, Dhananjay Sakrikar, Katelyn M. Green, Naheed W. Khan, Kevin Schey, Patrice E. Fort
Lipids in the stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients differ substantially in composition from healthy subjects. We hypothesized that hyperactivated type 2 immune response alters AD skin lipid metabolism. We have analyzed stratum corneum lipids from nonlesional and lesional skin of AD subjects and IL-13 skin-specific Tg mice. We also directly examined the effects of IL-4/IL-13 on human keratinocytes in vitro. Mass spectrometric analysis of lesional stratum corneum from AD subjects and IL-13 Tg mice revealed an increased proportion of short-chain (N-14:0 to N-24:0) NS ceramides, sphingomyelins, and 14:0–22:0 lysophosphatidylcholines (14:0–22:0 LPC) with a simultaneous decline in the proportion of corresponding long-chain species (N-26:0 to N-32:0 sphingolipids and 24:0–30:0 LPC) when compared with healthy controls. An increase in short-chain LPC species was also observed in nonlesional AD skin. Similar changes were observed in IL-4/IL-13–driven responses in Ca2+-differentiated human keratinocytes in vitro, all being blocked by STAT6 silencing with siRNA. RNA sequencing analysis performed on stratum corneum of AD as compared with healthy subjects identified decreased expression of fatty acid elongases ELOVL3 and ELOVL6 that contributed to observed changes in atopic skin lipids. IL-4/IL-13 also inhibited ELOVL3 and ELOVL6 expression in keratinocyte cultures in a STAT6-dependent manner. Downregulation of ELOVL3/ELOVL6 expression in keratinocytes by siRNA decreased the proportion of long-chain fatty acids globally and in sphingolipids. Thus, our data strongly support the pathogenic role of type 2 immune activation in AD skin lipid metabolism.
Evgeny Berdyshev, Elena Goleva, Irina Bronova, Nathan Dyjack, Cydney Rios, John Jung, Patricia Taylor, Mingeum Jeong, Clifton F. Hall, Brittany N. Richers, Kathryn A. Norquest, Tao Zheng, Max A. Seibold, Donald Y.M. Leung
BACKGROUND. Subspecies of HDL contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) and/or apoCIII. Both proteins have properties that could affect HDL metabolism. The relation between HDL metabolism and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well understood. METHODS. Eighteen participants were given a bolus infusion of [D3]L-leucine to label endogenous proteins on HDL. HDL was separated into subspecies containing apoE and/or apoCIII and then into 4 sizes. Metabolic rates for apoA-I in HDL subspecies and sizes were determined by interactive modeling. The concentrations of apoE in HDL that contain or lack apoCIII were measured in a prospective study in Denmark including 1,949 incident CHD cases during 9 years. RESULTS. HDL containing apoE but not apoCIII is disproportionately secreted into the circulation, actively expands while circulating, and is quickly cleared. These are key metabolic steps in reverse cholesterol transport, which may protect against atherosclerosis. ApoCIII on HDL strongly attenuates these metabolic actions of HDL apoE. In the epidemiological study, the relation between HDL apoE concentration and CHD significantly differed depending on whether apoCIII was present. HDL apoE was associated significantly with lower risk of CHD only in the HDL subspecies lacking apoCIII. CONCLUSIONS. ApoE and apoCIII on HDL interact to affect metabolism and CHD. ApoE promotes metabolic steps in reverse cholesterol transport and is associated with lower risk of CHD. ApoCIII, when coexisting with apoE on HDL, abolishes these benefits. Therefore, differences in metabolism of HDL subspecies pertaining to reverse cholesterol transport are reflected in differences in association with CHD. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01399632. FUNDING. This work was supported by NIH grant R01HL095964 to FMS and by a grant to the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (8UL1TR0001750) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Science.
Allyson M. Morton, Manja Koch, Carlos O. Mendivil, Jeremy D. Furtado, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Liyun Wang, Majken K. Jensen, Frank M. Sacks
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have efficacy in treating squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), but objective response rates are low. PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression alone is not considered a robust predictor of response and additional biomarkers are needed. This 3-year observational cohort followed 126 SCCHN patients treated with anti–PD-1/L1 therapy. Prior to treatment, 81 (64%) had targeted massively parallel tumor sequencing. Of these, 42 (52%) underwent fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry for tumor immunoprofiling. Six (5%) complete responses (CRs) and 11 (9%) partial responses (PRs) were observed. Those treated with prior chemotherapy (98, 78%) versus only surgery and/or radiation had longer overall survival (OS) (10 vs. 3 months, P = 0.02). Smokers had a higher total mutational burden (TMB) (P = 0.01). Virus-positive patients had a lower TMB (P < 0.01) and improved OS (P = 0.02). Among virus-negative responders, NOTCH1 and SMARCA4 were more frequently mutated and frameshift events in tumor suppressor genes occurred more frequently (P = 0.03). Higher TMB and CD8+ T cell infiltrates predicted anti–PD-1/L1 benefit (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively) among virus-negative tumors. TIM-3/LAG-3 coexpression with PD-1 was higher on T cells among nonresponders (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Somatic frameshift events in tumor suppressor genes and higher TMB among virus-negative SCCHN tumors predict anti–PD-1/L1 response.
Glenn J. Hanna, Patrick Lizotte, Megan Cavanaugh, Frank C. Kuo, Priyanka Shivdasani, Alexander Frieden, Nicole G. Chau, Jonathan D. Schoenfeld, Jochen H. Lorch, Ravindra Uppaluri, Laura E. MacConaill, Robert I. Haddad