Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a critical cytokine used by immune cells to suppress inflammation. Paradoxically, immune cell-derived IL-10 can drive insulin resistance in obesity by suppressing adipocyte energy expenditure and thermogenesis. However, the source of IL-10 necessary for the suppression of adipocyte thermogenesis is unknown. We show here that CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a significant source of IL-10, and that Treg-derived IL-10 can suppress adipocyte beiging. Unexpectedly, Treg-specific loss of IL-10 resulted in increased insulin sensitivity and reduced obesity in high fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice. Mechanistically, we determined that Treg-specific loss of the transcription factor Blimp-1, a driver of IL-10 expression by Tregs, phenocopied the Treg-specific IL-10-deficient mice. Loss of Blimp-1 expression in Tregs resulted in reduced ST2+, KLRG1+, IL-10-secreting Tregs, particularly in the white adipose tissue. Blimp-1-deficient mice were protected from glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity (DIO), through increased white adipose tissue browning. Taken together, our data show that Blimp-1-regulated IL-10 secretion by Tregs represses white adipose tissue beiging to maintain adipose tissue homeostasis.
Lisa Y. Beppu, Raja Mooli, Xiaoyao Qu, Giovanni J. Marrero, Christopher A. Finley, Allen N. Fooks, Zackary P. Mullen, Adolfo B. Frias Jr., Ian J. Sipula, Bingxian Xie, Katherine E. Helfrich, Simon C. Watkins, Amanda C. Poholek, Sadeesh K. Ramakrishnan, Michael J. Jurczak, Louise M. D'Cruz
Although many HIV cure strategies seek to expand HIV-specific CD8+ T cells to control the virus, all are likely to fail if cellular exhaustion is not prevented. A loss in stem-like memory properties (i.e., the ability to proliferate and generate secondary effector cells) is a key feature of exhaustion; little is known, however, about how these properties are regulated in human virus-specific CD8+ T cells. We found that virus-specific CD8+ T cells from humans and non-human primates naturally controlling HIV/SIV infection express more of the transcription factor, TCF-1, than non-controllers. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell TCF-1 expression correlated with memory marker expression and expansion capacity and declined with antigenic stimulation. CRISPR-Cas9 editing of TCF-1 in human primary T cells demonstrated a direct role in regulating expansion capacity. Collectively, these data suggest that TCF-1 contributes to the regulation of the stem-like memory property of secondary expansion capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, and they provide a rationale for exploring the enhancement of this pathway in T cell-based therapeutic strategies for HIV.
Rachel L. Rutishauser, Christian Deo T. Deguit, Joseph Hiatt, Franziska Blaeschke, Theodore L. Roth, Lynn Wang, Kyle A. Raymond, Carly E. Starke, Joseph C. Mudd, Wenxuan Chen, Carolyn P. Smullin, Rodrigo Matus-Nicodemos, Rebecca Hoh, Melissa R. Krone, Frederick M. Hecht, Christopher D. Pilcher, Jeffrey N. Martin, Richard A. Koup, Daniel C. Douek, Jason M. Brenchley, Rafick-Pierre Sékaly, Satish K. Pillai, Alexander Marson, Steven G. Deeks, Joseph M. McCune, Peter W. Hunt
Recent in vivo tracer studies demonstrated that targeted mass spectrometry (MS) on the Q Exactive Orbitrap could determine the metabolism of HDL proteins 100s-fold less abundant than APOA1. In this study, we demonstrate that the Orbitrap Lumos can measure tracer in proteins whose abundances are 1000s-fold less than APOA1, specifically the lipid transfer proteins PLTP, CETP, and LCAT. Relative to the Q Exactive, the Lumos improved tracer detection by reducing tracer enrichment compression, thereby providing consistent enrichment data across multiple HDL sizes from six participants. We determined by compartmental modeling that PLTP is secreted in medium and large HDL (alpha2, 1, and 0), and is transferred from medium to larger sizes during circulation from where it is catabolized. CETP is secreted mainly in alpha1 and alpha2, and remains in these sizes during circulation. LCAT is secreted mainly in medium and small HDL (alpha2, 3, prebeta). Unlike PLTP and CETP, LCAT appearance on HDL is markedly delayed compared to APOA1 and the other transfer proteins, indicating that LCAT may reside for a time outside of systemic circulation before attaching to HDL in plasma. The determination of these lipid transfer proteins’ unique metabolic structures was possible due to advances in MS technologies.
Sasha A. Singh, Allison B. Andraski, Hideyuki Higashi, Lang Ho Lee, Ashisha Ramsaroop, Frank M. Sacks, Masanori Aikawa
The cohesin complex plays an essential role in chromosome maintenance and transcriptional regulation. Recurrent somatic mutations in the cohesin complex are frequent genetic drivers in cancer including myelodysplatic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, using genetic dependency screens of STAG2-mutant AML, we identified DNA damage repair and replication as genetic dependencies in cohesin-mutant cells. We demonstrated increased levels of DNA damage and sensitivity of cohesin-mutant cells to PARP inhibition. We developed a mouse model of MDS in which Stag2 mutations arise as clonal secondary lesions in the background of clonal hematopoiesis driven by Tet2 mutations, and demonstrated selective depletion of cohesin-mutant cells with PARP inhibition in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated a shift from STAG2- to STAG1-containing cohesin complexes in cohesin-mutant cells, which is associated with longer DNA loop extrusion, more intermixing of chromatin compartments, and increased interaction with PARP and RPA proteins. Our findings inform the biology and therapeutic opportunities for cohesin-mutant malignancies.
Zuzana Tothova, Anne-Laure Valton, Rebecca Gorelov, Mounica Vallurupalli, John M. Krill-Burger, Amie Holmes, Catherine C. Landers, J. Erika Haydu, Edyta Malolepsza, Christina R. Hartigan, Melanie Donahue, Katerina D. Popova, Sebastian H. J. Koochaki, Sergey V. Venev, Jeanne F. Rivera, Edwin Chen, Kasper Lage, Monica Schenone, Alan D. D'Andrea, Steven A. Carr, Elizabeth A. Morgan, Job Dekker, Benjamin L. Ebert
Clinical trials of biologic therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D) aim to mitigate autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells through immune perturbation and serve as resources to elucidate immunological mechanisms in health and disease. In the T1DAL trial of alefacept (LFA3-Ig) in recent onset T1D, endogenous insulin production was preserved in 30% of subjects for two years post-therapy. Given our previous findings linking exhausted CD8 T cells to beneficial response in T1D trials, we applied unbiased analyses to sorted CD8 T cells to evaluate their potential role in T1DAL. Using RNA-seq, we found that greater insulin C-peptide preservation was associated with a module of activation- and exhaustion-associated genes. This signature was dissected into two distinct CD8 memory populations through correlation with clustered cytometry data. Both populations were hypo-proliferative, shared expanded TCR junctions, and expressed exhaustion-associated markers including TIGIT and KLRG1. The populations were distinguished by reciprocal expression of CD8 T and NK cell markers (GZMB, CD57 and inhibitory KIR genes), versus T cell activation and differentiation markers (PD1 and CD28). These findings support previous evidence linking exhausted CD8 T cells to successful immune interventions for T1D, while suggesting multiple inhibitory mechanisms can promote this beneficial cell state.
Kirsten E. Diggins, Elisavet Serti, Virginia S. Muir, Mario G. Rosasco, TingTing Lu, Elisa Balmas, Gerald T. Nepom, S. Alice Long, Peter S. Linsley
Human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) in current or former smokers exhibits a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) and distinct mutational signatures. Syngeneic mouse models of clinically relevant smoking-related LUAD are lacking. We established and characterized a tobacco-associated transplantable murine LUAD cell line, designated FVBW-17, from a LUAD induced by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in the FVB/N mouse strain. Whole exome sequencing of FVBW-17 cells identified tobacco-associated KrasG12D and Trp53 mutations and a similar mutation profile to that of classic alkylating agents with a TMB >500. FVBW-17 cells transplanted subcutaneously, via tail vein and orthotopically generated tumors in FVB/N mice that were histologically similar to human LUAD. FVBW-17 tumors expressed PD-L1, were infiltrated with CD8+ T cells, and responsive to anti-PD-L1 therapy. FVBW-17 cells were also engineered to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase to facilitate the detection and quantification of tumor growth. Distant metastases to lung, spleen, liver, and kidney were observed from subcutaneously transplanted tumors. This novel cell line is a robust representation of human smoking-related LUAD biology and provides a much needed pre-clinical model in which to test promising new agents and combinations including immune-based therapies.
Laura P. Stabile, Vinod Kumar, Autumn Gaither-Davis, Eric H.B. Huang, Frank P. Vendetti, Princey Devadassan, Sanja Dacic, Riyue Bao, Richard A. Steinman, Timothy F. Burns, Christopher J. Bakkenist
Computational models based on recent maps of the red blood cell proteome suggest that mature erythrocytes may harbor targets for common drugs. This prediction is relevant to red blood cell storage in the blood bank, in which the impact of small molecule drugs or other xenometabolites deriving from dietary, iatrogenic or environmental exposures (“exposome”) may alter erythrocyte energy and redox metabolism and, in so doing, affect red cell storage quality and post-transfusion efficacy. To test this prediction, here we provide a comprehensive characterization of the blood donor exposome, including the detection of common prescription and over-the-counter drugs in 250 units donated by healthy volunteers from the REDS-III RBC Omics study. Based on high-throughput drug screenings of 1,366 FDA-approved drugs, we report a significant impact of ~65% of the tested drugs on erythrocyte metabolism. Machine learning models built using metabolites as predictors were able to accurately predict drugs for several drug classes/targets (bisphosphonates, anticholinergics, calcium channel blockers, adrenergics, proton-pump inhibitors, antimetabolites, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mTOR) suggesting that these drugs have a direct, conserved, and significant impact on erythrocyte metabolism. As a proof of principle, here we show that the antiacid ranitidine – though rarely detected in the blood donor population – has a strong effect on RBC markers of storage quality in vitro. We thus show that ranitidine supplementation to blood units could improve erythrocyte metabolism and storage quality when supplemented to blood bags, through mechanisms involving sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent modulation of erythrocyte glycolysis and/or direct binding to hemoglobin.
Travis Nemkov, Davide Stefanoni, Aarash Bordbar, Aaron Issaian, Bernhard O. Palsson, Larry J. Dumont, Ariel M. Hay, Anren Song, Yang Xia, Jasmina S. Redzic, Elan Z. Eisenmesser, James C. Zimring, Steve Kleinman, Kirk C. Hansen, Michael Busch, Angelo D’Alessandro
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) enables the maintenance of a stem cell population while simultaneously generating differentiated progeny. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) undergo multiple modes of cell division during tumor expansion and in response to therapy, yet the functional consequences of these division modes remain to be determined. Using a fluorescent reporter for cell surface receptor distribution during mitosis, we found that ACD generated a daughter cell with enhanced therapeutic resistance and increased co-enrichment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) from a glioblastoma CSC. Stimulation of both receptors antagonized differentiation induction and promoted self-renewal capacity. p75NTR knockdown enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibition, indicating that co-inheritance of p75NTR and EGFR promotes resistance to EGFR inhibition through a redundant mechanism. These data demonstrate that ACD produces progeny with co-enriched growth factor receptors, which contributes to the generation of a more therapeutically resistant CSC population.
Masahiro Hitomi, Anastasia P. Chumakova, Daniel J. Silver, Arnon M. Knudsen, W. Dean Pontius, Stephanie Murphy, Neha S. Anand, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Justin Lathia
Paucity of the Glucose Transporter1 (Glut1) protein resulting from haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene arrests cerebral angiogenesis and disrupts brain function to cause Glucose Transporter1 Deficiency Syndrome (Glut1 DS). Restoring Glut1 to Glut1 DS model mice prevents disease but the precise cellular sites of action of the transporter, its temporal requirements and the mechanism(s) linking scarcity of the protein to brain cell dysfunction remain poorly understood. Here we show that Glut1 functions in a cell-autonomous manner in the cerebral microvasculature to affect endothelial tip cells and thus brain angiogenesis. Moreover, brain endothelial cell-specific Glut1 depletion not only triggers a severe neuro-inflammatory response in the Glut1 DS brain but also reduces levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and causes overt disease. Reduced BDNF correlated with fewer neurons in the Glut1 DS brain. Controlled depletion of the protein demonstrated that brain pathology and disease severity was greatest when Glut1 scarcity was induced neonatally, during brain angiogenesis. Reducing Glut1 at later stages had mild or little effect. Our results suggest that targeting brain endothelial cells during early development is important to ensure proper brain angiogenesis, prevent neuro-inflammation, maintain BDNF levels and preserve neuron numbers. This requirement will be essential for any disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for Glut1 DS.
Maoxue Tang, Sarah H. Park, Sabrina Petri, Hang Yu, Carlos B. Rueda, E. Dale Abel, Carla Y. Kim, Elizabeth M. C. Hillman, Fanghua Li, Yeojin Lee, Lei Ding, Smitha Jagadish, Wayne N. Frankel, Darryl C. De Vivo, Umrao R. Monani
Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a variety of human inflammatory diseases, however currently no pharmacological NLRP3 inhibitor has been approved in clinic. In this study, we showed that echinatin, the ingredient of the traditional herbal medicine licorice, effectively suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that echinatin exerts its inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome by binding to heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), inhibiting its ATPase activity, and disrupting the association between the cochaperone SGT1 and HSP90-NLRP3. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrated that administration of echinatin obviously inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates LPS-induced septic shock and DSS-induced colitis in mice. Moreover, echinatin exerted favorable pharmacological effects on liver inflammation and fibrosis in mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Collectively, our study identified echinatin as a novel inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome and may be developed as a potentially therapeutic approach for the treatment of NLRP3-driven diseases.
Guang Xu, Shubin Fu, Xiaoyan Zhan, Zhilei Wang, Ping Zhang, Wei Shi, Nan Qin, Yuanyuan Chen, Chunyu Wang, Ming Niu, Yuming Guo, Jia-bo Wang, Zhaofang Bai, Xiaohe Xiao
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