BACKGROUND. In inflammatory blood vessel diseases, macrophages represent a key component of the vascular infiltrates and are responsible for tissue injury and wall remodeling. METHODS. To examine whether inflammatory macrophages in the vessel wall display a single distinctive effector program, we compared functional profiles in patients with either coronary artery disease (CAD) or giant cell arteritis (GCA). RESULTS. Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived macrophages from the 2 patient cohorts displayed disease-specific signatures and differed fundamentally in metabolic fitness. Macrophages from CAD patients were high producers for T cell chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10), the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the immunoinhibitory ligand PD-L1. In contrast, macrophages from GCA patients upregulated production of T cell chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10) but not IL-1β and IL-6, and were distinctly low for PD-L1 expression. Notably, disease-specific effector profiles were already identifiable in circulating monocytes. The chemokinehicytokinehiPD-L1hi signature in CAD macrophages was sustained by excess uptake and breakdown of glucose, placing metabolic control upstream of inflammatory function. CONCLUSIONS. We conclude that monocytes and macrophages contribute to vascular inflammation in a disease-specific and discernible pattern, have choices to commit to different functional trajectories, are dependent on glucose availability in their immediate microenvironment, and possess memory in their lineage commitment. FUNDING. Supported by the NIH (R01 AR042527, R01 HL117913, R01 AI108906, P01 HL129941, R01 AI108891, R01 AG045779 U19 AI057266, R01 AI129191), I01 BX001669, and the Cahill Discovery Fund.
Ryu Watanabe, Marc Hilhorst, Hui Zhang, Markus Zeisbrich, Gerald J. Berry, Barbara B. Wallis, David G. Harrison, John C. Giacomini, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
BACKGROUND. Lymphedema is a common condition affecting millions around the world that still lacks approved medical therapy. Because ketoprofen, an NSAID, has been therapeutic in experimental lymphedema, we evaluated its efficacy in humans. METHODS. We first performed an exploratory open-label trial. Patients with either primary or secondary lymphedema received ketoprofen 75 mg by mouth 3 times daily for 4 months. Subjects were evaluated for changes in histopathology, with skin thickness, limb volume, and tissue bioimpedance changes serving as secondary endpoints. Based on our encouraging findings, we next conducted a placebo-controlled trial, with the primary outcome defined as a change in skin thickness, as measured by skin calipers. Secondary endpoints for this second study included histopathology, limb volume, bioimpedance, and systemic inflammatory mediators. RESULTS. We enrolled 21 lymphedema patients in the open-label trial, from November 2010 to July 2011. Histopathology and skin thickness were significantly improved at 4 months compared with baseline. In the follow-up, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled 34 patients from August 2011 to October 2015, with 16 ketoprofen recipients and 18 placebo-treated subjects. No serious adverse events occurred. The ketoprofen recipients demonstrated reduced skin thickness, as well as improved composite measures of histopathology and decreased plasma granulocyte CSF (G-CSF) expression. CONCLUSION. These 2 exploratory studies together support the utility of targeted antiinflammatory therapy with ketoprofen in patients with lymphedema. Our results highlight the promise of such approaches to help restore a failing lymphatic circulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257970.
Stanley G. Rockson, Wen Tian, Xinguo Jiang, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Francois Haddad, Jamie Zampell, Babak Mehrara, Joshua P. Sampson, Leslie Roche, Jinah Kim, Mark R. Nicolls
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is characterized by abnormal retinal neovascularization in response to vessel loss. Platelets regulate angiogenesis and may influence ROP progression. In preterm infants, we assessed ROP and correlated with longitudinal postnatal platelet counts (n = 202). Any episode of thrombocytopenia (<100 × 109/l) at ≥30 weeks postmenstrual age (at onset of ROP) was independently associated with severe ROP, requiring treatment. Infants with severe ROP also had a lower weekly median platelet count compared with infants with less severe ROP. In a mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy model of ROP, platelet counts were lower at P17 (peak neovascularization) versus controls. Platelet transfusions at P15 and P16 suppressed neovascularization, and platelet depletion increased neovascularization. Platelet transfusion decreased retinal of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA and protein expression; platelet depletion increased retinal VEGFA mRNA and protein expression. Resting platelets with intact granules reduced neovascularization, while thrombin-activated degranulated platelets did not. These data suggest that platelet releasate has a local antiangiogenic effect on endothelial cells to exert a downstream suppression of VEGFA in neural retina. Low platelet counts during the neovascularization phase in ROP is significantly associated with the development of severe ROP in preterm infants. In a murine model of retinopathy, platelet transfusion during the period of neovascularization suppressed retinopathy.
Bertan Cakir, Raffael Liegl, Gunnel Hellgren, Pia Lundgren, Ye Sun, Susanna Klevebro, Chatarina Löfqvist, Clara Mannheimer, Steve Cho, Alexander Poblete, Rubi Duran, Boubou Hallberg, Jorge Canas, Viola Lorenz, Zhi-Jian Liu, Martha C. Sola-Visner, Lois E.H. Smith, Ann Hellström
The long-term adverse effects of radiotherapy on cardiovascular disease are well documented. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this increased risk are poorly understood. Previous studies using rigorous smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage tracing have shown abundant SMC investment into atherosclerotic lesions, where SMCs contribute to the formation of a protective fibrous cap. Studies herein tested whether radiation impairs protective adaptive SMC responses during vascular disease. To do this, we exposed SMC lineage tracing (Myh11-ERT2Cre YFP+) mice to lethal radiation (1,200 cGy) followed by bone marrow transplantation prior to atherosclerosis development or vessel injury. Surprisingly, following irradiation, we observed a complete loss of SMC investment in 100% of brachiocephalic artery (BCA), carotid artery, and aortic arch lesions. Importantly, this was associated with a decrease in multiple indices of atherosclerotic lesion stability within the BCA. Interestingly, we observed anatomic heterogeneity, as SMCs accumulated normally into lesions of the aortic root and abdominal aorta, suggesting that SMC sensitivity to lethal irradiation occurs in blood vessels of neural crest origin. Taken together, these results reveal an undefined and unintended variable in previous studies using lethal irradiation and may help explain why patients exposed to radiation have increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Alexandra A.C. Newman, Richard A. Baylis, Daniel L. Hess, Steven D. Griffith, Laura S. Shankman, Olga A. Cherepanova, Gary K. Owens
In hemolytic diseases, such as sickle cell disease (SCD), intravascular hemolysis results in the release of hemoglobin, heme, and heme-loaded membrane microvesicles in the bloodstream. Intravascular hemolysis is thus associated with inflammation and organ injury. Complement system can be activated by heme in vitro. We investigated the mechanisms by which hemolysis and red blood cell (RBC) degradation products trigger complement activation in vivo. In kidney biopsies of SCD nephropathy patients and a mouse model with SCD, we detected tissue deposits of complement C3 and C5b-9. Moreover, drug-induced intravascular hemolysis or injection of heme or hemoglobin in mice triggered C3 deposition, primarily in kidneys. Renal injury markers (Kim-1, NGAL) were attenuated in C3–/– hemolytic mice. RBC degradation products, such as heme-loaded microvesicles and heme, induced alternative and terminal complement pathway activation in sera and on endothelial surfaces, in contrast to hemoglobin. Heme triggered rapid P selectin, C3aR, and C5aR expression and downregulated CD46 on endothelial cells. Importantly, complement deposition was attenuated in vivo and in vitro by heme scavenger hemopexin. In conclusion, we demonstrate that intravascular hemolysis triggers complement activation in vivo, encouraging further studies on its role in SCD nephropathy. Conversely, heme inhibition using hemopexin may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity to limit complement activation in hemolytic diseases.
Nicolas S. Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Helena Rajaratnam, Viviane Gnemmi, Marie Frimat, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Samantha Knockaert, Sanah Bouzekri, Dominique Charue, Remi Noe, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Marie Le-Hoang, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Monika Edler, Sara Petrillo, Emanuela Tolosano, Sylvia Miescher, Sylvain Le Jeune, Pascal Houillier, Sophie Chauvet, Marion Rabant, Jordan D. Dimitrov, Veronique Fremeaux-Bacchi, Olivier P. Blanc-Brude, Lubka T. Roumenina
Metabolic syndrome contributes to cardiovascular disease partly through systemic risk factors. However, local processes in the artery wall are becoming increasingly recognized to exacerbate atherosclerosis both in mice and humans. We show that arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) glucose metabolism markedly synergizes with metabolic syndrome in accelerating atherosclerosis progression, using a low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mouse model. SMCs in proximity to atherosclerotic lesions express increased levels of the glucose transporter GLUT1. Cytokines, such as TNF-α produced by lesioned arteries, promote GLUT1 expression in SMCs, which in turn increases expression of the chemokine CCL2 through increased glycolysis and the polyol pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of GLUT1 in SMCs, but not in myeloid cells, accelerates development of larger, more advanced lesions in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome, which also exhibits elevated levels of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes expressing the CCL2 receptor CCR2. Accordingly, monocyte tracing experiments demonstrate that targeted SMC GLUT1 overexpression promotes Ly6Chi monocyte recruitment to lesions. Strikingly, SMC-targeted GLUT1 overexpression fails to accelerate atherosclerosis in mice that do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome phenotype or monocytosis. These results reveal a potentially novel mechanism whereby arterial smooth muscle glucose metabolism synergizes with metabolic syndrome to accelerate monocyte recruitment and atherosclerosis progression.
Valerie Z. Wall, Shelley Barnhart, Jenny E. Kanter, Farah Kramer, Masami Shimizu-Albergine, Neeta Adhikari, Thomas N. Wight, Jennifer L. Hall, Karin E. Bornfeldt
Preeclampsia (PE), associates with long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women, suggesting that PE is not an isolated disease of pregnancy. It is not known if increased risk for long-term diseases is due to PE-specific factors or to prepregnancy renal and cardiovascular risk factors. We used a mouse model in which a WT female with normal prepregnancy health develops PE to investigate if preeclampsia causes long-term cardiovascular consequences after pregnancy for mothers and offspring. Mothers exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension after PE and had glomerular injury that not only persisted but deteriorated, leading to fibrosis. Left ventricular (LV) remodeling characterized by increased collagen deposition and MMP-9 expression and enlarged cardiomyocytes were also detected after PE. Increased LV internal wall thickness and mass, increased end diastolic and end systolic volumes, and increased stroke volume were observed after PE in the mothers. Placenta-derived bioactive factors that modulate vascular function, markers of metabolic disease, vasoconstrictor isoprostane-8, and proinflammatory mediators were increased in sera during and after a preeclamptic pregnancy in the mother. Offspring of PE mice developed endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and signs of metabolic disease. Microglia activation was increased in the neonatal brains after PE, suggesting neurogenic hypertension in offspring. Prevention of placental insufficiency with pravastatin prevented PE-associated cardiovascular complications in both mothers and offspring. In conclusion, factors that develop during PE have long-term, cardiovascular effects in the mother and offspring independent of prepregnancy risk factors.
Nicola Garrett, Joaquim Pombo, Michelle Umpierrez, James E. Clark, Mark Simmons, Guillermina Girardi
Alterations in ectopic lipid deposition and circulating lipids are major risk factors for developing cardiometabolic diseases. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein that inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL), controls fatty acid (FA) uptake in adipose and oxidative tissues and regulates circulating triacylglycerol-rich (TAG-rich) lipoproteins. Unfortunately, global depletion of ANGPTL4 results in severe metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, and fibrosis when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD), limiting our understanding of the contribution of ANGPTL4 in metabolic disorders. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of ANGPTL4 in adipose tissue (AT) results in enhanced LPL activity, rapid clearance of circulating TAGs, increased AT lipolysis and FA oxidation, and decreased FA synthesis in AT. Most importantly, we found that absence of ANGPTL4 in AT prevents excessive ectopic lipid deposition in the liver and muscle, reducing novel PKC (nPKC) membrane translocation and enhancing insulin signaling. As a result, we observed a remarkable improvement in glucose tolerance in short-term HFD-fed AT-specific Angptl4-KO mice. Finally, lack of ANGPTL4 in AT enhances the clearance of proatherogenic lipoproteins, attenuates inflammation, and reduces atherosclerosis. Together, these findings uncovered an essential role of AT ANGPTL4 in regulating peripheral lipid deposition, influencing whole-body lipid and glucose metabolism and the progression of atherosclerosis.
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K. Singh, Xinbo Zhang, Luis Varela, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Balkrishna Chaube, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Daniel F. Vatner, Tamas L. Horvath, Gerald I. Shulman, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Using an untargeted metabolomics approach in initial (N = 99 subjects) and replication cohorts (N = 1,162), we discovered and structurally identified a plasma metabolite associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysine (trimethyllysine, TML). Stable-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry analyses of an independent validation cohort (N = 2,140) confirmed TML levels are independently associated with incident (3-year) major adverse cardiovascular event risks (hazards ratio [HR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7–3.4) and incident (5-year) mortality risk (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.0–4.2). Genome-wide association studies identified several suggestive loci for TML levels, but none reached genome-wide significance; and d9(trimethyl)-TML isotope tracer studies confirmed TML can serve as a nutrient precursor for gut microbiota–dependent generation of trimethylamine (TMA) and the atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Although TML was shown to be abundant in both plant- and animal-derived foods, mouse and human fecal cultures (omnivores and vegans) showed slow conversion of TML to TMA. Furthermore, unlike chronic dietary choline, TML supplementation in mice failed to elevate plasma TMAO or heighten thrombosis potential in vivo. Thus, TML is identified as a strong predictor of incident CVD risks in subjects and to serve as a dietary precursor for gut microbiota–dependent generation of TMAO; however, TML does not appear to be a major microbial source for TMAO generation in vivo.
Xinmin S. Li, Zeneng Wang, Tomas Cajka, Jennifer A. Buffa, Ina Nemet, Alex G. Hurd, Xiaodong Gu, Sarah M. Skye, Adam B. Roberts, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Christopher J. Shahen, Matthew A. Wagner, Jaana A. Hartiala, Robert L. Kerby, Kymberleigh A. Romano, Yi Han, Slayman Obeid, Thomas F. Lüscher, Hooman Allayee, Federico E. Rey, Joseph A. DiDonato, Oliver Fiehn, W.H. Wilson Tang, Stanley L. Hazen
Early acute rejection of human allografts is mediated by circulating alloreactive host effector memory T cells (TEM). TEM infiltration typically occurs across graft postcapillary venules and involves sequential interactions with graft-derived endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs). While the role of ECs in allograft rejection has been extensively studied, contributions of PCs to this process are largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of interactions between human PCs and allogeneic TEM. We report that unstimulated PCs, like ECs, can directly present alloantigen to TEM, but while IFN-γ–activated ECs (γ-ECs) show increased ability to stimulate alloreactive T cells, IFN-γ–activated PCs (γ-PCs) instead suppress TEM proliferation but not cytokine production or signaling. RNA sequencing analysis of PCs, γ-PCs, ECs, and γ-ECs reveal induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in γ-PCs to significantly higher levels than in γ-ECs that correlates with tryptophan depletion in vitro. Consistently, shRNA knockdown of IDO1 markedly reduces γ-PC–mediated immunoregulatory effects. Furthermore, human PCs express IDO1 in a skin allograft rejection humanized mouse model and in human renal allografts with acute T cell–mediated rejection. We conclude that immunosuppressive properties of human PCs are not intrinsic but instead result from IFN-γ–induced IDO1-mediated tryptophan depletion.
Rebecca Liu, Jonathan Merola, Thomas D. Manes, Lingfeng Qin, Gregory T. Tietjen, Francesc López-Giráldez, Verena Broecker, Caodi Fang, Catherine Xie, Ping-Min Chen, Nancy C. Kirkiles-Smith, Dan Jane-Wit, Jordan S. Pober
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