Depletion of CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection is mostly mediated by inflammatory cells via indirect but not clearly defined mechanisms. In this report we employed the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology to study HIV-induced transcriptomic change in innate immune cells in lymphoid organs. We performed scRNA-seq on hCD45+hCD3-hCD19- human leukocytes isolated from spleens of humanized NOD/Rag2-/-/γc-/- (NRG) mice transplanted with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (NRG-hu HSC mice). We identified major populations of innate immune cells including plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), macrophage, nature killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILC). HIV-1 infection significantly upregulated genes involved in type-I interferon inflammatory pathways in each of the innate immune subsets. Interestingly, we found that the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was upregulated in the innate immune populations including pDC, mDC, macrophage, NK and ILC. We further demonstrated that blockade of TRAIL signaling pathway in NRG-hu HSC mice prevented HIV-1 induced CD4+ T cell depletion in vivo. In summary, we characterized HIV-induced transcriptomic changes of innate immune cells in the spleen at single-cell levels, identified the TRAIL+ innate immune cells and defined an important role of TRAIL signaling pathway in HIV-1 induced CD4+ T cell depletion in vivo.
Liang Cheng, Haisheng Yu, John A. Wrobel, Guangming Li, Peng Liu, Zhiyuan Hu, Xiao-Ning Xu, Lishan Su
HIV infection is associated with an increase in the proportion of activated CD8 memory T cells (Tmem) that express CX3CR1, but how these cells are generated and maintained in vivo is unclear. We demonstrate that increased CX3CR1 expression on CD8 Tmem in people living with HIV (PLWH) is dependent on coinfection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and CX3CR1+ CD8 Tmem are enriched for a putatively immunosenescent CD57+CD28– phenotype. The cytokine IL-15 promotes the phenotype, survival, and proliferation of CX3CR1+CD57+ CD8 Tmem in vitro, whereas TCR stimulation leads to their death. IL-15-driven survival is dependent on STAT5 and Bcl-2 activity, and IL-15-induced proliferation requires STAT5 and mTORC1. Thus, we identify mechanistic pathways that could explain how “inflammescent” CX3CR1+CD57+ CD8 Tmem dominate the overall memory T cell pool in CMV-seropositive PLWH and that support reevaluation of immune senescence as a nonproliferative dead-end.
Stephen R. Morris, Bonnie Chen, Joseph C. Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Carey L. Shive, Scott F. Sieg, Cheryl M. Cameron, David A. Zidar, Nicholas T. Funderburg, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Benigno Rodriguez, Sara Gianella, Michael M. Lederman, Michael L. Freeman
Plasma viral load (VL) and CD4+ T-cell count are widely used as biomarkers of HIV-1 replication, pathogenesis, and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the clinical potential of cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 molecular markers is much less understood. Here, we measured CA HIV-1 RNA and DNA in HIV-infected individuals treated with temporary ART initiated during primary HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate significant predictive value of CA RNA for: (a) the virological and immunological response to early ART, (b) the magnitude and time to viral rebound after discontinuation of early ART, and (c) the disease progression in the absence of treatment. Remarkably, when adjusted for CA RNA, plasma VL no longer appeared as an independent predictor of any clinical endpoint in this cohort. The potential of CA RNA as an HIV-1 clinical marker, in particular as a predictive biomarker of virological control after stopping ART, should be explored in the context of HIV-1 curative interventions.
Alexander O. Pasternak, Marlous L. Grijsen, Ferdinand W. Wit, Margreet Bakker, Suzanne Jurriaans, Jan M. Prins, Ben Berkhout
BACKGROUND. The relative stabilities of the intact and defective HIV genomes over time during effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been fully characterized. METHODS. We used the intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) to estimate the rate of change of intact and defective proviruses in HIV-infected adults on ART over several years. We used linear spline models with a knot at seven years; these included a random intercept and slope up to the knot. We also estimated the influence of covariates on starting levels and rates of change. RESULTS. We studied 81 individuals for a median of 7.3 (IQR 5.9–9.6) years. In a model allowing for a change in the rate of decline, we found evidence for a more rapid rate of decline in intact genomes from initial suppression through seven years (15.7% per year decline; CI –22.8%, –8.0%) followed by a slower rate of decline after seven years (3.6% per year; CI –8.1%, +1.1%). The estimated half-life of the reservoir was 4.0 years (CI 2.7–8.3) until year seven and 18.7 years (CI 8.2–infinite) thereafter. There was substantial variability between individuals in the rate of decline until year seven. Intact provirus declined at a faster rate than defective provirus (P < 0.001). Individuals with higher CD4+ T cell nadir values had a faster rate of decline in intact provirus. CONCLUSIONS. These findings provide evidence that the biology of the replication-competent (intact) reservoir differs from that of the replication-incompetent (non-intact) pool of proviruses. The IPDA will likely be informative when investigating the impact of interventions targeting the reservoir. FUNDING. This work was supported the Delaney AIDS Research Enterprise (DARE; AI096109, A127966). The SCOPE cohort receives additional support from the UCSF/Gladstone Institute of Virology & Immunology CFAR (P30 AI027763), the CFAR Network of Integrated Systems (R24 AI067039) and the amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research (amfAR 109301). Additional support was provided by the I4C and Beat-HIV Collaboratories, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gilead, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Michael J. Peluso, Peter Bacchetti, Kristen D. Ritter, Subul A. Beg, Jun Lai, Jeffrey N. Martin, Peter W. Hunt, Timothy J. Henrich, Janet D. Siliciano, Robert F. Siliciano, Gregory M. Laird, Steven G. Deeks
The HIV latent reservoir in resting memory CD4+ T cells prevents cure. Therapeutics to reactivate and eliminate this reservoir are in clinical trials in adults, but not in pediatric populations. We determined, ex vivo, the inducibility and size of the latent reservoir in perinatal compared with adult infections using the Tat/rev Induced Limiting Dilution Assay (TILDA), in which a single-round (12hr) of CD4+ T cell stimulation with PMA/ionomycin maximally activates T cells and leads to proviral expression with multiply-spliced HIV RNA production. Markers of immune activation and exhaustion were measured to assess interactions with inducibility. Despite similar rates of T cell activation with PMA/ionomycin, the latent reservoir in perinatal infection is slower to reactivate and of lower magnitude compared to adult infection, independent of proviral load. An enhanced TILDA with the addition of phytohemagglutin and for 18 hours augmented proviral expression in perinatal but not adult infection. Baseline HLA–DR+ CD4+ T cells was significantly lower in perinatal compared with adult infections, but not correlated with induced reservoir size. These data support differences in baseline immune activation and kinetics of latency reversal in perinatal compared with adult infections, with implications for latency reversal strategies towards reservoir clearance and remission.
Adit Dhummakupt, Jessica H. Rubens, Thuy Anderson, Laura Powell, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Lilly V. Siems, Aleisha Collinson-Streng, Tricia L. Nilles, R. Brad Jones, Vicki Tepper, Allison Agwu, Deborah Persaud
In the RV144 HIV-1 phase III trial, vaccine efficacy directly correlated with the magnitude of the variable region 2–specific (V2-specific) IgG antibody response, and in the presence of low plasma IgA levels, with the magnitude of plasma antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Reenrollment of RV144 vaccinees in the RV305 trial offered the opportunity to define the function, maturation, and persistence of vaccine-induced V2-specific and other mAb responses after boosting. We show that the RV144 vaccine regimen induced persistent V2 and other HIV-1 envelope–specific memory B cell clonal lineages that could be identified throughout the approximately 11-year vaccination period. Subsequent boosts increased somatic hypermutation, a critical requirement for antibody affinity maturation. Characterization of 22 vaccine-induced V2-specific mAbs with epitope specificities distinct from previously characterized RV144 V2-specific mAbs CH58 and CH59 found increased in vitro antibody-mediated effector functions. Thus, when inducing non-neutralizing antibodies, one method by which to improve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy may be through late boosting to diversify the V2-specific response to increase the breadth of antibody-mediated anti–HIV-1 effector functions.
David Easterhoff, Justin Pollara, Kan Luo, Benjamin Janus, Neelakshi Gohain, LaTonya D. Williams, Matthew Zirui Tay, Anthony Monroe, Kristina Peachman, Misook Choe, Susie Min, Paolo Lusso, Peng Zhang, Eden P. Go, Heather Desaire, Mattia Bonsignori, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Charles Beck, Matina Kakalis, Robert J. O’Connell, Sandhya Vasan, Jerome H. Kim, Nelson L. Michael, Jean-Louis Excler, Merlin L. Robb, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Faruk Sinangil, James Tartaglia, Sanjay Phogat, Kevin Wiehe, Kevin O. Saunders, David C. Montefiori, Georgia D. Tomaras, M. Anthony Moody, James Arthos, Mangala Rao, M. Gordon Joyce, Gilad A. Ofek, Guido Ferrari, Barton F. Haynes
Cardiomyopathies are complex heart muscle diseases that can be inherited or acquired. Dilated cardiomyopathy can result from mutations in LMNA, encoding the nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamin A/C. Some LMNA mutations lead to accumulation of the lamin A precursor, prelamin A, which is disease causing in a number of tissues yet its impact upon the heart is unknown. Here we discovered myocardial prelamin A accumulation occurred in a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and show that a novel mouse model of cardiac specific prelamin A accumulation exhibited a phenotype consistent with ‘inflammatory cardiomyopathy’ which we observed to be similar to HIV associated cardiomyopathy, an acquired disease state. Numerous HIV protease therapies are known to inhibit ZMPSTE24, the enzyme responsible for prelamin A processing, and we confirmed that accumulation of prelamin A occurred in HIV+ patient cardiac biopsies. These findings: (1) confirm a unifying pathological role for prelamin A common to genetic and acquired cardiomyopathies; (2) have implications for the management of HIV patients with cardiac disease suggesting protease inhibitors should be replaced with alternative therapies i.e. non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; and (3) suggest that targeting inflammation may be a useful treatment strategy for certain forms of inherited cardiomyopathy.
Daniel Brayson, Andrea Frustaci, Romina Verardo, Cristina Chimenti, Matteo Antonio Russo, Robert Hayward, Sadia Munir Ahmad, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Andrea Protti, Peter S. Zammit, Cristobal G. dos Remedios, Elisabeth Ehler, Ajay M. Shah, Catherine M. Shanahan
We hypothesized that HIV-1 with dual-class but not single-class drug resistance mutations linked on the same viral genome, present in the virus population prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be associated with failure of ART to suppress viremia. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an ultrasensitive single genome sequencing assay that detects rare HIV-1 variants with linked drug resistance mutations (DRMs). A case (ART failure) – control (non-failure) study was designed to assess whether linkage of DRMs in pre-ART plasma samples was associated with treatment outcome in the nevirapine /tenofovir/emtricitabine arm of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5208/OCTANE Trial 1 among women who had received prior single dose nevirapine. Ultrasensitive single genome sequencing revealed a significant association between pre-ART HIV variants with DRMs to 2 drug classes linked on the same genome (dual-class) and failure of three drug ART to suppress viremia. By contrast, linked, single-class DRMs were not associated with ART failure. We conclude that linked dual-class DRMs present before the initiation of ART are associated with ART failure, whereas linked single-class DRMs are not.
Valerie F. Boltz, Wei Shao, Michael J. Bale, Elias K. Halvas, Brian Luke, James A. McIntyre, Robert T. Schooley, Shahin Lockman, Judith S. Currier, Fred Sawe, Evelyn Hogg, Michael D. Hughes, Mary F. Kearney, John M. Coffin, John W. Mellors
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 are under evaluation for both prevention and therapy. HIV-1 sequence diversity observed in most HIV-infected individuals and archived variations in critical bNAb epitopes present a major challenge for the clinical application of bNAbs, as preexistent resistant viral strains can emerge, resulting in bNAb failure to control HIV. In order to identify viral resistance in patients prior to antibody therapy and to guide the selection of effective bNAb combination regimens, we developed what we believe to be a novel Bayesian machine-learning model that uses HIV-1 envelope protein sequences and foremost approximated glycan occupancy information as variables to quantitatively predict the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 126 neutralizing antibodies against a variety of cross clade viruses. We then applied this model to peripheral blood mononuclear cell–derived proviral Env sequences from 25 HIV-1–infected individuals mapping the landscape of neutralization resistance within each individual’s reservoir and determined the predicted ideal bNAb combination to achieve 100% neutralization at IC50 values <1 μg/ml. Furthermore, predicted cellular viral reservoir neutralization signatures of individuals before an analytical antiretroviral treatment interruption were consistent with the measured neutralization susceptibilities of the respective plasma rebound viruses, validating our model as a potentially novel tool to facilitate the advancement of bNAbs into the clinic.
Wen-Han Yu, David Su, Julia Torabi, Christine M. Fennessey, Andrea Shiakolas, Rebecca Lynch, Tae-Wook Chun, Nicole Doria-Rose, Galit Alter, Michael S. Seaman, Brandon F. Keele, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Boris Julg
Background. HIV-infected patients with poor virologic control and multi-drug resistant virus have limited therapeutic options. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the safety, immunologic effects, and antiviral activity of peripheral lymphocytes transferred from an elite controller, whose immune system is able to control viral replication without antiretroviral medications, to an HLA-B*2705-matched progressor. Methods. Approximately 22 billion cells were collected from an elite controller by lymphaphersis and infused within 6 hours into a recipient with a pre-infusion CD4+ T cell count of 10 cells/μL (1%) and HIV plasma viral load of 114,993 copies/mL. Results. Donor cells were cleared from the recipient's peripheral blood by day 8. A transient decrease in viral load to 58,421 (day 3) was followed by a rebound to 702,972 (day 6) before returning to baseline values by day 8. The decreased viral load was temporally associated with peak levels of donor T cells, including CD8+ T cells that had high levels of expression of Ki67, perforin, and granzyme B. Notably, recipient CD8+ T cells also expressed increased expression of these markers, especially in HIV-specific tetramer positive cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from an HIV-infected elite controller to an HIV-infected patient with progressive disease may be able to perturb the immune system of the recipient in both positive and negative ways.
Stephen A. Migueles, Cheryl Chairez, Siying Lin, Noah V. Gavil, Danielle M. Rosenthal, Milad Pooran, Ven Natarajan, Adam Rupert, Robin Dewar, Tauseef Rehman, Brad T. Sherman, Joseph Adelsberger, Susan Leitman, David Stroncek, Caryn G. Morse, Mark Connors, H. Clifford Lane, Joseph A. Kovacs
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