Solid tumors impose immunologic and physical barriers to the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy that are not reflected in conventional preclinical testing against singularized tumor cells in 2-dimensional culture. Here, we established microphysiologic three-dimensional (3D) lung and breast cancer models that resemble architectural and phenotypical features of primary tumors and evaluated the antitumor function of receptor tyrosine kinase–like orphan receptor 1–specific (ROR1-specific) CAR T cells. 3D tumors were established from A549 (non–small cell lung cancer) and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative breast cancer) cell lines on a biological scaffold with intact basement membrane (BM) under static and dynamic culture conditions, which resulted in progressively increasing cell mass and invasive growth phenotype (dynamic > static; MDA-MB-231 > A549). Treatment with ROR1-CAR T cells conferred potent antitumor effects. In dynamic culture, CAR T cells actively entered arterial medium flow and adhered to and infiltrated the tumor mass. ROR1-CAR T cells penetrated deep into tumor tissue and eliminated multiple layers of tumor cells located above and below the BM. The microphysiologic 3D tumor models developed in this study are standardized, scalable test systems that can be used either in conjunction with or in lieu of animal testing to interrogate the antitumor function of CAR T cells and to obtain proof of concept for their safety and efficacy before clinical application.
Lars Wallstabe, Claudia Göttlich, Lena C. Nelke, Johanna Kühnemundt, Thomas Schwarz, Thomas Nerreter, Hermann Einsele, Heike Walles, Gudrun Dandekar, Sarah L. Nietzer, Michael Hudecek
Invasive growth of A549 lung cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer in 3D culture.