Mutations of the
Toshifumi Fujiwara, Shiqiao Ye, Thiago Castro-Gomes, Caylin G. Winchell, Norma W. Andrews, Daniel E. Voth, Kottayil I. Varughese, Samuel G. Mackintosh, Yunfeng Feng, Nathan Pavlos, Takashi Nakamura, Stavros C. Manolagas, Haibo Zhao
There continues to be a need for immunotherapies to treat type 1 diabetes in the clinic. We previously reported that nondepleting anti-CD4 and -CD8 Ab treatment effectively reverses diabetes in new-onset NOD mice. A key feature of the induction of remission is the egress of the majority of islet-resident T cells. How this occurs is undefined. Herein, the effects of coreceptor therapy on islet T cell retention were investigated. Bivalent Ab binding to CD4 and CD8 blocked TCR signaling and T cell cytokine production, while indirectly downregulating islet chemokine expression. These processes were required for T cell retention, as ectopic IFN-γ or CXCL10 inhibited Ab-mediated T cell purging. Importantly, treatment of humanized mice with nondepleting anti–human CD4 and CD8 Ab similarly reduced tissue-infiltrating human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings demonstrate that Ab binding of CD4 and CD8 interrupts a feed-forward circuit by suppressing T cell–produced cytokines needed for expression of chemotactic cues, leading to rapid T cell egress from the islets. Coreceptor therapy therefore offers a robust approach to suppress T cell–mediated pathology by purging T cells in an inflammation-dependent manner.
Aaron J. Martin, Matthew Clark, Gregory Gojanovich, Fatima Manzoor, Keith Miller, Douglas E. Kline, Y. Maurice Morillon, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
Current antiangiogenesis therapy relies on inhibiting newly developed immature tumor blood vessels and starving tumor cells. This strategy has shown transient and modest efficacy. Here, we report a better approach to target cancer-associated endothelial cells (ECs), reverse permeability and leakiness of tumor blood vessels, and improve delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor. First, we identified deregulated microRNAs (miRs) from patient-derived cancer-associated ECs. Silencing these miRs led to decreased vascular permeability and increased maturation of blood vessels. Next, we screened a thioaptamer (TA) library to identify TAs selective for tumor-associated ECs. An annexin A2–targeted TA was identified and used for delivery of miR106b-5p and miR30c-5p inhibitors, resulting in vascular maturation and antitumor effects without inducing hypoxia. These findings could have implications for improving vascular-targeted therapy.
Lingegowda S. Mangala, Hongyu Wang, Dahai Jiang, Sherry Y. Wu, Anoma Somasunderam, David E. Volk, Ganesh L. R. Lokesh, Xin Li, Sunila Pradeep, Xianbin Yang, Monika Haemmerle, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Archana S Nagaraja, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Emine Bayraktar, Recep Bayraktar, Li Li, Takemi Tanaka, Wei Hu, Cristina Ivan, Kshipra M Gharpure, Michael H. McGuire, Varatharasa Thiviyanathan, Xinna Zhang, Sourindra N. Maiti, Nataliya Bulayeva, Hyun-Jin Choi, Piotr L. Dorniak, Laurence J.N. Cooper, Kevin P. Rosenblatt, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, David G. Gorenstein, Anil K. Sood
To derive new insights in diabetic complications, we integrated publicly available human protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks with global metabolic networks using metabolomic data from patients with diabetic nephropathy. We focused on the participating proteins in the network that were computationally predicted to connect the urine metabolites.
Rintaro Saito, Anaïs Rocanin-Arjo, Young-Hyun You, Manjula Darshi, Benjamin Van Espen, Satoshi Miyamoto, Jessica Pham, Minya Pu, Simone Romoli, Loki Natarajan, Wenjun Ju, Matthias Kretzler, Robert Nelson, Keiichiro Ono, Dana Thomasova, Shrikant R. Mulay, Trey Ideker, Vivette D’Agati, Ergin Beyret, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Hans Joachim Anders, Kumar Sharma
Diana Golden, Antonina Kolmakova, Sunitha Sura, Anthony T. Vella, Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Suzette J. Bielinski, Kent D. Taylor, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Stephen S. Rich, Annabelle Rodriguez
Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in
Isabel Huang-Doran, Patsy Tomlinson, Felicity Payne, Alexandra Gast, Alison Sleigh, William Bottomley, Julie Harris, Allan Daly, Nuno Rocha, Simon Rudge, Jonathan Clark, Albert Kwok, Stefano Romeo, Emma McCann, Barbara Müksch, Mehul Dattani, Stefano Zucchini, Michael Wakelam, Lazaros C. Foukas, David B. Savage, Rinki Murphy, Stephen O’Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Robert K. Semple
While respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently associates with chronic infection by
Sladjana Skopelja, B. JoNell Hamilton, Jonathan D. Jones, Mei-Ling Yang, Mark Mamula, Alix Ashare, Alex H. Gifford, William F.C. Rigby
Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and other genetic syndromes associated with interstitial lung disease; however, mechanisms linking AEC dysfunction and fibrotic remodeling are incompletely understood. Since increased macrophage recruitment precedes pulmonary fibrosis in HPS, we investigated whether crosstalk between AECs and macrophages determines fibrotic susceptibility. We found that AECs from HPS mice produce excessive MCP-1, which was associated with increased macrophages in the lungs of unchallenged HPS mice. Blocking MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in HPS mice with genetic deficiency of CCR2 or targeted deletion of MCP-1 in AECs normalized macrophage recruitment, decreased AEC apoptosis, and reduced lung fibrosis in these mice following treatment with low-dose bleomycin. We observed increased TGF-β production by HPS macrophages, which was eliminated by CCR2 deletion. Selective deletion of TGF-β in myeloid cells or of TGF-β signaling in AECs through deletion of TGFBR2 protected HPS mice from AEC apoptosis and bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Together, these data reveal a feedback loop in which increased MCP-1 production by dysfunctional AECs results in recruitment and activation of lung macrophages that produce TGF-β, thus amplifying the fibrotic cascade through AEC apoptosis and stimulation of fibrotic remodeling.
Lisa R. Young, Peter M. Gulleman, Chelsi W. Short, Harikrishna Tanjore, Taylor Sherrill, Aidong Qi, Andrew P. McBride, Rinat Zaynagetdinov, John T. Benjamin, William E. Lawson, Sergey V. Novitskiy, Timothy S. Blackwell
Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor–mediated (IP3R-mediated) calcium (Ca2+) release has been proposed to play an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction for decades. However, whether and how IP3R regulates blood pressure in vivo remains unclear. To address these questions, we have generated a smooth muscle–specific IP3R triple-knockout (smTKO) mouse model using a tamoxifen-inducible system. In this study, the role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in adult VSMCs on aortic vascular contractility and blood pressure was assessed following tamoxifen induction. We demonstrated that deletion of IP3Rs significantly reduced aortic contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, including phenylephrine, U46619, serotonin, and endothelin 1. Deletion of IP3Rs also dramatically reduced the phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 induced by U46619. Furthermore, although the basal blood pressure of smTKO mice remained similar to that of wild-type controls, the increase in systolic blood pressure upon chronic infusion of angiotensin II was significantly attenuated in smTKO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important role for IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in VSMCs in regulating vascular contractility and hypertension.
Qingsong Lin, Guiling Zhao, Xi Fang, Xiaohong Peng, Huayuan Tang, Hong Wang, Ran Jing, Jie Liu, W. Jonathan Lederer, Ju Chen, Kunfu Ouyang
Adaptive changes in the genome of a locally predominant clinical isolate of the multidrug-resistant
Danielle Ahn, Hernán Peñaloza, Zheng Wang, Matthew Wickersham, Dane Parker, Purvi Patel, Antonius Koller, Emily I. Chen, Susan M. Bueno, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Alice Prince
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a clear survival advantage in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. These emerging results reveal that HNSCC is one of the most promising frontiers for immunotherapy research. However, further progress in head and neck immuno-oncology will require a detailed understanding of the immune infiltrative landscape found in these tumors. We leveraged transcriptome data from 280 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to comprehensively characterize the immune landscape of HNSCC in order to develop a rationale for immunotherapeutic strategies in HNSCC and guide clinical investigation. We find that both HPV+ and HPV– HNSCC tumors are among the most highly immune-infiltrated cancer types. Strikingly, HNSCC had the highest median Treg/CD8+ T cell ratio and the highest levels of CD56dim NK cell infiltration, in our pan-cancer analysis of the most immune-infiltrated tumors. CD8+ T cell infiltration and CD56dim NK cell infiltration each correlated with superior survival in HNSCC. Tumors harboring genetic smoking signatures had lower immune infiltration and were associated with poorer survival, suggesting these patients may benefit from immune agonist therapy. These findings illuminate the immune landscape of HPV+ and HPV– HNSCC. Additionally, this landscape provides a potentially novel rationale for investigation of agents targeting modulators of Tregs (e.g., CTLA-4, GITR, ICOS, IDO, and VEGFA) and NK cells (e.g., KIR, TIGIT, and 4-1BB) as adjuncts to anti–PD-1 in the treatment of advanced HNSCC.
Rajarsi Mandal, Yasin Şenbabaoğlu, Alexis Desrichard, Jonathan J. Havel, Martin G. Dalin, Nadeem Riaz, Ken-Wing Lee, Ian Ganly, A. Ari Hakimi, Timothy A. Chan, Luc G.T. Morris
Viral hepatitis remains a global health challenge despite recent progress in the development of more effective therapies. Although virus-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses are essential for viral clearance, it remains largely unknown what regulates T cell–mediated viral clearance. Thus, a better understanding of the regulation of anti-viral T cell immunity would be critical for the design of more effective therapies for viral hepatitis. Using a model of adenovirus-induced hepatitis, here we showed that adenoviral infection induced recruitment of Ly6Chi monocytes to the liver in a CCR2-dependent manner. These recruited Ly6Chi monocytes suppressed CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses to adenoviral infection, leading to a delay in viral clearance. In vivo depletion of Ly6Chi monocytes markedly enhanced anti-viral T cell responses and promoted viral clearance. Mechanistically, we showed that induction of iNOS and the production of NO by Ly6Chi monocytes are critical for the suppression of T cell responses. In addition, a contact-dependent mechanism mediated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction is also required for T cell suppression by Ly6Chi monocytes. These findings suggest a critical role for Ly6Chi monocytes in the regulation of T cell immunity in viral hepatitis and may provide new insights into development of more effective therapies for treating viral hepatitis based on targeting the immunosuppressing monocytes.
Jiangao Zhu, Huiyao Chen, Xiaopei Huang, Songfu Jiang, Yiping Yang
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25. Neither patient developed
Nikolaus Rieber, Roel P. Gazendam, Alexandra F. Freeman, Amy P. Hsu, Amanda L. Collar, Janyce A. Sugui, Rebecca A. Drummond, Chokechai Rongkavilit, Kevin Hoffman, Carolyn Henderson, Lily Clark, Markus Mezger, Muthulekha Swamydas, Maik Engeholm, Rebecca Schüle, Bettina Neumayer, Frank Ebel, Constantinos M. Mikelis, Stefania Pittaluga, Vinod K. Prasad, Anurag Singh, Joshua D. Milner, Kelli W. Williams, Jean K. Lim, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Steven M. Holland, Dominik Hartl, Taco W. Kuijpers, Michail S. Lionakis
A unique feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Several risk factors for RA are known to increase the expression or activity of peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs), which catalyze citrullination and, when dysregulated, can result in hypercitrullination. However, the consequence of hypercitrullination is unknown and the function of each PAD has yet to be defined. Th cells of RA patients are hypoglycolytic and hyperproliferative due to impaired expression of PFKFB3 and ATM, respectively. Here, we report that these features are also observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy at-risk individuals (ARIs). PBMCs of ARIs are also hypercitrullinated and produce more IL-2 and Th17 cytokines but fewer Th2 cytokines. These abnormal features are due to impaired induction of PTPN22, a phosphatase that also suppresses citrullination independently of its phosphatase activity. Attenuated phosphatase activity of PTPN22 results in aberrant expression of IL-2, ATM, and PFKFB3, whereas diminished nonphosphatase activity of PTPN22 leads to hypercitrullination mediated by PADs. PAD2- or PAD4-mediated hypercitrullination reduces the expression of Th2 cytokines. By contrast, only PAD2-mediated hypercitrullination can increase the expression of Th17 cytokines. Taken together, our data depict a molecular signature of preclinical RA that is triggered by impaired induction of PTPN22.
Hui-Hsin Chang, Guang-Yaw Liu, Nishant Dwivedi, Bo Sun, Yuko Okamoto, Jennifer D. Kinslow, Kevin D. Deane, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Jill M. Norris, Paul R. Thompson, Jeffrey A. Sparks, Deepak A. Rao, Elizabeth W. Karlson, Hui-Chih Hung, V. Michael Holers, I-Cheng Ho
The American Society for Clinical Investigation and Journal of Clinical Investigation are pleased to launch JCI Insight, a peer-reviewed journal dedicated to biomedical research, ranging from preclinical to clinical studies. Headed by Editor in Chief Howard Rockman, JCI Insight provides the research community with a broad forum to publish well-executed, high-quality, and insightful research articles across biomedical specialties.