Mitophagy occurs during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and limits oxidative stress and injury. Mitochondrial turnover was assessed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Paired biopsies of right atrial appendage before initiation and after weaning from CPB were processed for protein analysis, mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA:nucDNA ratio), mtDNA damage, mRNA, and polysome profiling. Mitophagy in the post-CPB samples was evidenced by decreased levels of mitophagy adapters NDP52 and optineurin in whole tissue lysate, decreased Opa1 long form, and translocation of Parkin to the mitochondrial fraction. PCR analysis of mtDNA comparing amplification of short vs. long segments of mtDNA revealed increased damage following cardiac surgery. Surprisingly, a marked increase in several mitochondria-specific protein markers and mtDNA:nucDNA ratio was observed, consistent with increased mitochondrial biogenesis. mRNA analysis suggested that mitochondrial biogenesis was traniscription independent and likely driven by increased translation of existing mRNAs. These findings demonstrate in humans that both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis occur during cardiac surgery involving CPB. We suggest that mitophagy is balanced by mitochondrial biogenesis during I/R stress experienced during surgery. Mitigating mtDNA damage and elucidating mechanisms regulating mitochondrial turnover will lead to interventions to improve outcome after I/R in the setting of heart disease.
Allen M. Andres, Kyle C. Tucker, Amandine Thomas, David J.R. Taylor, David Sengstock, Salik M. Jahania, Reza Dabir, Somayeh Pourpirali, Jamelle A. Brown, David G. Westbrook, Scott W. Ballinger, Robert M. Mentzer Jr., Roberta A. Gottlieb
It remains unclear how perturbations in cardiomyocyte sarcomere function alter postnatal heart development. We utilized murine models that allowed manipulation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) expression at critical stages of cardiac ontogeny to study the response of the postnatal heart to disrupted sarcomere function. We discovered that the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian heart development was altered in mice lacking MYBPC3 and this was the critical period for subsequent development of cardiomyopathy. Specifically, MYBPC3-null hearts developed evidence of increased cardiomyocyte endoreplication, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of cell cycle stimulatory cyclins and increased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Interestingly, this response was self-limited at later developmental time points by an upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. These results provide valuable insights into how alterations in sarcomere protein function modify postnatal heart development and highlight the potential for targeting cell cycle regulatory pathways to counteract cardiomyopathic stimuli.
Benjamin R. Nixon, Alexandra F. Williams, Michael S. Glennon, Alejandro E. de Feria, Sara C. Sebag, H. Scott Baldwin, Jason R. Becker
BACKGROUND. In dilated cardiomyopathies (DCMs) changes in expression of protein-coding genes are associated with reverse remodeling, and these changes can be regulated by microRNAs (miRs). We tested the general hypothesis that dynamic changes in myocardial miR expression are predictive of β-blocker–associated reverse remodeling.
METHODS. Forty-three idiopathic DCM patients (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 0.24 ± 0.09) were treated with β-blockers. Serial ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsies were performed at baseline, and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. Changes in RT-PCR (candidate miRs) or array-measured miRs were compared based on the presence (R) or absence (NR) of a reverse-remodeling response, and a miR-mRNA-function pathway analysis (PA) was performed.
RESULTS. At 3 months, 2 candidate miRs were selectively changed in Rs, decreases in miR-208a-3p and miR-591. PA revealed changes in miR-mRNA interactions predictive of decreased apoptosis and myocardial cell death. At 12 months, 5 miRs exhibited selective changes in Rs (decreases in miR-208a-3p, -208b-3p, 21-5p, and 199a-5p; increase in miR-1-3p). PA predicted decreases in apoptosis, cardiac myocyte cell death, hypertrophy, and heart failure, with increases in contractile and overall cardiac functions.
CONCLUSIONS. In DCMs, myocardial miRs predict the time-dependent reverse-remodeling response to β-blocker treatment, and likely regulate the expression of remodeling-associated miRs.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01798992.
FUNDING. NIH 2R01 HL48013, 1R01 HL71118 (Bristow, PI); sponsored research agreements from Glaxo-SmithKline and AstraZeneca (Bristow, PI); NIH P20 HL101435 (Lowes, Port multi-PD/PI); sponsored research agreement from Miragen Therapeutics (Port, PI).
Carmen C. Sucharov, David P. Kao, J. David Port, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Robert A. Quaife, Wayne Minobe, Karin Nunley, Brian D. Lowes, Edward M. Gilbert, Michael R. Bristow
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) accelerates heart rate, increases cardiac contractility, and constricts resistance vessels. The activity of SNS efferent nerves is generated by a complex neural network containing neurons and glia. Gq G protein–coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling in glial fibrillary acidic protein–expressing (GFAP+) glia in the central nervous system supports neuronal function and regulates neuronal activity. It is unclear how Gq-GPCR signaling in GFAP+ glia affects the activity of sympathetic neurons or contributes to SNS-regulated cardiovascular functions. In this study, we investigated whether Gq-GPCR activation in GFAP+ glia modulates the regulatory effect of the SNS on the heart; transgenic mice expressing Gq-coupled DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) (hM3Dq) selectively in GFAP+ glia were used to address this question in vivo. We found that acute Gq-GPCR activation in peripheral GFAP+ glia significantly accelerated heart rate and increased left ventricle contraction. Pharmacological experiments suggest that the glial-induced cardiac changes were due to Gq-GPCR activation in satellite glial cells within the sympathetic ganglion; this activation led to increased norepinephrine (NE) release and beta-1 adrenergic receptor activation within the heart. Chronic glial Gq-GPCR activation led to hypotension in female
Alison Xiaoqiao Xie, Jakovin J. Lee, Ken D. McCarthy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common heart disease with a prevalence of 1 in 500 in the general population. Several mutations in genes encoding cardiac proteins have been found in HCM patients, but these changes do not predict occurrence or prognosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying HCM remain largely elusive. Here we show that cardiac expression of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) is reduced in a subset of HCM patients. In a mouse model, muscle-specific loss of Vps34 led to HCM-like manifestations and sudden death. Vps34-deficient hearts exhibited abnormal histopathologies, including myofibrillar disarray and aggregates containing αB-crystallin (CryAB). These features result from a block in the ESCRT-mediated proteolysis that normally degrades K63-polyubiquitinated CryAB. CryAB deposition was also found in myocardial specimens from a subset of HCM patients whose hearts showed decreased Vps34. Our results identify disruption of the previously unknown Vps34-CryAB axis as a potentially novel etiology of HCM.
Hirotaka Kimura, Satoshi Eguchi, Junko Sasaki, Keiji Kuba, Hiroki Nakanishi, Shunsuke Takasuga, Masakazu Yamazaki, Akiteru Goto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Hiroshi Itoh, Yumiko Imai, Akira Suzuki, Noboru Mizushima, Takehiko Sasaki
Mechanical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) are often fatal. Little is known about endogenous factors that predispose to myocardial rupture after MI. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) could be a critical mediator of propensity to myocardial rupture after MI due to its role in modulating inflammation and thrombosis. Using a model of permanent coronary artery ligation, rupture was virtually abrogated in
Nadia R. Sutton, Takanori Hayasaki, Matthew C. Hyman, Anuli C. Anyanwu, Hui Liao, Danica Petrovic-Djergovic, Linda Badri, Amy E. Baek, Natalie Walker, Keigo Fukase, Yogendra Kanthi, Scott H. Visovatti, Ellen L. Horste, Jessica J. Ray, Sascha N. Goonewardena, David J. Pinsky
Three-dimensional cardiac mapping is important for optimal visualization of the heart during cardiac ablation for the treatment of certain arrhythmias. However, many hospitals and clinics worldwide cannot afford the high cost of the current mapping systems. We set out to determine if, using predefined algorithms, comparable 3D cardiac maps could be created by a new device that relies on data generated from single-plane fluoroscopy and patient recording and monitoring systems, without the need for costly equipment, infrastructure changes, or specialized catheters. The study included phantom and animal experiments to compare the prototype test device, Navik 3D, with the existing CARTO 3 System. The primary endpoint directly compared: (a) the 3D distance between the Navik 3D–simulated ablation location and the back-projected ground truth location of the pacing and mapping catheter electrode, and (b) the same distance for CARTO. The study’s primary objective was considered met if the 95% confidence lower limit was greater than 0.75% for the Navik 3D–CARTO difference between the 2 distances, or less than or equal to 2 mm. Study results showed that the Navik 3D performance was equivalent to the CARTO system, and that accurate 3D cardiac maps can be created using data from equipment that already exists in all electrophysiology labs.
Jasbir Sra, David Krum, Indrajit Choudhuri, Barry Belanger, Mark Palma, Donald Brodnick, Daniel B. Rowe
Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke and have elevated MRP8/14 levels that predict heart attack. The KC-Tie2 psoriasiform mouse model exhibits elevated MRP8/14 and is prothrombotic.
Yunmei Wang, Jackelyn B. Golden, Yi Fritz, Xiufen Zhang, Doina Diaconu, Maya I. Camhi, Huiyun Gao, Sean M. Dawes, Xianying Xing, Santhi K. Ganesh, Johann E. Gudjonsson, Daniel I. Simon, Thomas S. McCormick, Nicole L. Ward
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common autosomal dominant disorder that presents with short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and cardiac abnormalities. Activating mutations in the
Jae-Sung Yi, Yan Huang, Andrea T. Kwaczala, Ivana Y. Kuo, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stuart G. Campbell, Frank J. Giordano, Anton M. Bennett
Bcl-2–associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) is an evolutionarily conserved protein expressed at high levels in the heart and the vasculature and in many cancers. While altered BAG3 expression has been associated with cardiac dysfunction, its role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that BAG3 protects the heart from reperfusion injury, in vivo cardiac function was measured in hearts infected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9–expressing (rAAV9-expressing) BAG3 or GFP and subjected to I/R. To elucidate molecular mechanisms by which BAG3 protects against I/R injury, neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (NMVCs) in which BAG3 levels were modified by adenovirus expressing (Ad-expressing) BAG3 or siBAG3 were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). H/R significantly reduced NMVC BAG3 levels, which were associated with enhanced expression of apoptosis markers, decreased expression of autophagy markers, and reduced autophagy flux. The deleterious effects of H/R on apoptosis and autophagy were recapitulated by knockdown of BAG3 with Ad-siBAG3 and were rescued by Ad-BAG3. In vivo, treatment of mice with rAAV9-BAG3 prior to I/R significantly decreased infarct size and improved left ventricular function when compared with mice receiving rAAV9-GFP and improved markers of autophagy and apoptosis. These findings suggest that BAG3 may provide a therapeutic target in patients undergoing reperfusion after myocardial infarction.
Feifei Su, Valerie D. Myers, Tijana Knezevic, JuFang Wang, Erhe Gao, Muniswamy Madesh, Farzaneh G. Tahrir, Manish K. Gupta, Jennifer Gordon, Joseph Rabinowitz, Frederick V. Ramsey, Douglas G. Tilley, Kamel Khalili, Joseph Y. Cheung, Arthur M. Feldman
Marc A. Simon, Rebecca R. Vanderpool, Mehdi Nouraie, Timothy N. Bachman, Pamela M. White, Masataka Sugahara, John Gorcsan III, Ed L. Parsley, Mark T. Gladwin
Diana Golden, Antonina Kolmakova, Sunitha Sura, Anthony T. Vella, Ani Manichaikul, Xin-Qun Wang, Suzette J. Bielinski, Kent D. Taylor, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Stephen S. Rich, Annabelle Rodriguez
Adipose tissue is a key endocrine organ that governs systemic homeostasis. PPARγ is a master regulator of adipose tissue signaling that plays an essential role in insulin sensitivity, making it an important therapeutic target. The selective PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) has been used to treat diabetes. However, adverse cardiovascular effects have seriously hindered its clinical application. Experimental models have revealed that PPARγ activation increases cardiac hypertrophy. RSG stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ knockout mice, implying that RSG might stimulate cardiac hypertrophy independently of cardiomyocyte PPARγ. However, candidate cell types responsible for RSG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remain unexplored. Utilizing cocultures of adipocytes and cardiomyocytes, we found that stimulation of PPARγ signaling in adipocytes increased miR-200a expression and secretion. Delivery of miR-200a in adipocyte-derived exosomes to cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased TSC1 and subsequent mTOR activation, leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Treatment with an antagomir to miR-200a blunted this hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes. In vivo, specific ablation of PPARγ in adipocytes was sufficient to blunt hypertrophy induced by RSG treatment. By delineating mechanisms by which RSG elicits cardiac hypertrophy, we have identified pathways that mediate the crosstalk between adipocytes and cardiomyocytes to regulate cardiac remodeling.
Xi Fang, Matthew J. Stroud, Kunfu Ouyang, Li Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nancy D. Dalton, Yusu Gu, Tongbin Wu, Kirk L. Peterson, Hsien-Da Huang, Ju Chen, Nanping Wang
Mutagenesis screening is a powerful forward genetic approach that has been successfully applied in lower-model organisms to discover genetic factors for biological processes. This phenotype-based approach has yet to be established in vertebrates for probing major human diseases, largely because of the complexity of colony management. Herein, we report a rapid strategy for identifying genetic modifiers of cardiomyopathy (CM). Based on the application of doxorubicin stress to zebrafish insertional cardiac (ZIC) mutants, we identified 4 candidate CM-modifying genes, of which 3 have been linked previously to CM. The long isoform of DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 6b (
Yonghe Ding, Pamela A. Long, J. Martijn Bos, Yu-Huan Shih, Xiao Ma, Rhianna S. Sundsbak, Jianhua Chen, Yiwen Jiang, Liqun Zhao, Xinyang Hu, Jianan Wang, Yongyong Shi, Michael J. Ackerman, Xueying Lin, Stephen C. Ekker, Margaret M. Redfield, Timothy M. Olson, Xiaolei Xu
Cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) expressing the ISL1-LIM–homeodomain transcription factor contribute developmentally to cardiomyocytes in all 4 chambers of the heart. Here, we show that ISL1-CPCs can be applied to myocardial regeneration following injury. We used a rapid 3D methylcellulose approach to form murine and human ISL1-CPC spheroids that engrafted after myocardial infarction in murine hearts, where they differentiated into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, integrating into the myocardium and forming new blood vessels. ISL1-CPC spheroid–treated mice exhibited reduced infarct area and increased blood vessel formation compared with control animals. Moreover, left ventricular (LV) contractile function was significantly better in mice transplanted with ISL1-CPCs 4 weeks after injury than that in control animals. These results provide proof-of-concept of a cardiac repair strategy employing ISL1-CPCs that, based on our previous lineage-tracing studies, are committed to forming heart tissue, in combination with a robust methylcellulose spheroid–based delivery approach.
Oscar Bartulos, Zhen Wu Zhuang, Yan Huang, Nicole Mikush, Carol Suh, Alda Bregasi, Lin Wang, William Chang, Diane S. Krause, Lawrence H. Young, Jordan S. Pober, Yibing Qyang
The mechanisms by which exercise mediates its multiple cardiac benefits are only partly understood. Prior comprehensive analyses of the cardiac transcriptional components and microRNAs dynamically regulated by exercise suggest that the CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED4 is a downstream effector in both networks. While CITED4 has documented functional consequences in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro, nothing is known about its effects in the adult heart. To investigate the impact of cardiac CITED4 expression in adult animals, we generated transgenic mice with regulated, cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 expression. Cardiac CITED4 expression in adult mice was sufficient to induce an increase in heart weight and cardiomyocyte size with normal systolic function, similar to the effects of endurance exercise training. After ischemia-reperfusion, CITED4 expression did not change initial infarct size but mediated substantial functional recovery while reducing ventricular dilation and fibrosis. Forced cardiac expression of CITED4 also induced robust activation of the mTORC1 pathway after ischemic injury. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 abrogated CITED4’s effects in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data establish CITED4 as a regulator of mTOR signaling that is sufficient to induce physiologic hypertrophy at baseline and mitigate adverse ventricular remodeling after ischemic injury.
Vassilios J. Bezzerides, Colin Platt, Carolin Lerchenmüller, Kaavya Paruchuri, Nul Loren Oh, Chunyang Xiao, Yunshan Cao, Nina Mann, Bruce M. Spiegelman, Anthony Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND. Failed myocardial reperfusion is common and prognostically important after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary flow reserve (CFR), a measure of vasodilator capacity, and the index of microvascular resistance (IMR; mmHg × s) in the culprit artery of STEMI survivors.
METHODS. IMR (
RESULTS. Myocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction occurred in 89 (42%) and 114 (54%) patients with evaluable T2*-MRI maps. IMR and CFR were associated with microvascular pathology (none vs. microvascular obstruction only vs. microvascular obstruction and myocardial hemorrhage) (median [interquartile range], IMR: 17 [12.0–33.0] vs. 17 [13.0–39.0] vs. 37 [21.0–63.0],
CONCLUSIONS. IMR is more closely associated with microvascular pathology, left ventricular remodeling, and health outcomes than the angiogram or CFR.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. NCT02072850.
FUNDING. A British Heart Foundation Project Grant (PG/11/2/28474), the National Health Service, the Chief Scientist Office, a Scottish Funding Council Senior Fellowship, a British Heart Foundation Intermediate Fellowship (FS/12/62/29889), and a nonfinancial research agreement with Siemens Healthcare.
David Carrick, Caroline Haig, Jaclyn Carberry, Vannesa Teng Yue May, Peter McCartney, Paul Welsh, Nadeem Ahmed, Margaret McEntegart, Mark C. Petrie, Hany Eteiba, Mitchell Lindsay, Stuart Hood, Stuart Watkins, Ahmed Mahrous, Samuli M.O. Rauhalammi, Ify Mordi, Ian Ford, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Naveed Sattar, Keith G. Oldroyd, Colin Berry
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by progressive functional and structural changes. We performed RNA-seq at different stages of disease to define molecular signaling in the progression from pre-DCM hearts to DCM and overt heart failure (HF) using a genetic model of DCM (phospholamban missense mutation, PLNR9C/+). Pre-DCM hearts were phenotypically normal yet displayed proliferation of nonmyocytes (59% relative increase vs. WT,
Michael A. Burke, Stephen Chang, Hiroko Wakimoto, Joshua M. Gorham, David A. Conner, Danos C. Christodoulou, Michael G. Parfenov, Steve R. DePalma, Seda Eminaga, Tetsuo Konno, Jonathan G. Seidman, Christine E. Seidman
We recently discovered that endothelial Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the ER, regulates vascular function by inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme, serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Here, we show that endothelium-derived sphingolipids, particularly sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the heart from inflammation, fibrosis, and dysfunction following pressure overload and that Nogo-B regulates this paracrine process. SPT activity is upregulated in banded hearts in vivo as well as in TNF-α–activated endothelium in vitro, and loss of Nogo removes the brake on SPT, increasing local S1P production. Hence, mice lacking Nogo-B, systemically or specifically in the endothelium, are resistant to the onset of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SPT with myriocin restores permeability, inflammation, and heart dysfunction in Nogo-A/B–deficient mice to WT levels, whereas SEW2871, an S1P1 receptor agonist, prevents myocardial permeability, inflammation, and dysfunction in WT banded mice. Our study identifies a critical role of endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis and its regulation by Nogo-B in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and proposes a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation or reversal of this clinical condition.
Yi Zhang, Yan Huang, Anna Cantalupo, Paula S. Azevedo, Mauro Siragusa, Jacek Bielawski, Frank J. Giordano, Annarita Di Lorenzo
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by redistribution of junctional proteins, arrhythmias, and progressive myocardial injury. We previously reported that SB216763 (SB2), annotated as a GSK3β inhibitor, reverses disease phenotypes in a zebrafish model of ACM. Here, we show that SB2 prevents myocyte injury and cardiac dysfunction in vivo in two murine models of ACM at baseline and in response to exercise. SB2-treated mice with desmosome mutations showed improvements in ventricular ectopy and myocardial fibrosis/inflammation as compared with vehicle-treated (Veh-treated) mice. GSK3β inhibition improved left ventricle function and survival in sedentary and exercised
Stephen P. Chelko, Angeliki Asimaki, Peter Andersen, Djahida Bedja, Nuria Amat-Alarcon, Deeptankar DeMazumder, Ravirasmi Jasti, Calum A. MacRae, Remo Leber, Andre G. Kleber, Jeffrey E. Saffitz, Daniel P. Judge
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