There is tremendous excitement for the potential of epigenetic therapies in cancer, but the ability to predict and monitor response to these drugs remains elusive. This is in part due to the inability to differentiate the direct cytotoxic and the immunomodulatory effects of these drugs. The DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine (AZA) has shown these distinct effects in colon cancer and appears to be linked to the derepression of repeat RNAs. LINE and HERV are two of the largest classes of repeats in the genome, and despite many commonalities, we found that there is heterogeneity in behavior among repeat subtypes. Specifically, the LINE-1 and HERV-H subtypes detected by RNA sequencing and RNA in situ hybridization in colon cancers had distinct expression patterns, which suggested that these repeats are correlated to transcriptional programs marking different biological states. We found that low LINE-1 expression correlates with global DNA hypermethylation, wild-type
Niyati Desai, Dipti Sajed, Kshitij S. Arora, Alexander Solovyov, Mihir Rajurkar, Jacob R. Bledsoe, Srinjoy Sil, Ramzi Amri, Eric Tai, Olivia C. MacKenzie, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martin J. Aryee, Cristina R. Ferrone, David L. Berger, Miguel N. Rivera, Benjamin D. Greenbaum, Vikram Deshpande, David T. Ting
Clinical trials revealed limited response duration of glioblastomas to VEGF-neutralizing antibody bevacizumab. Thriving in the devascularized microenvironment occurring after antiangiogenic therapy requires tumor cell adaptation to decreased glucose, with 50% less glucose identified in bevacizumab-treated xenografts. Compared with bevacizumab-responsive xenograft cells, resistant cells exhibited increased glucose uptake, glycolysis, 13C NMR pyruvate to lactate conversion, and survival in low glucose. Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) was upregulated in bevacizumab-resistant versus sensitive xenografts and patient specimens in a HIF-1α–dependent manner. Resistant versus sensitive cell mitochondria in oxidative phosphorylation–selective conditions produced less ATP. Despite unchanged mitochondrial numbers, normoxic resistant cells had lower mitochondrial membrane potential than sensitive cells, confirming poorer mitochondrial health, but avoided the mitochondrial dysfunction of hypoxic sensitive cells. Thin-layer chromatography revealed increased triglycerides in bevacizumab-resistant versus sensitive xenografts, a change driven by mitochondrial stress. A glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor suppressing GLUT3 transcription caused greater cell death in bevacizumab-resistant than -responsive cells. Overexpressing GLUT3 in tumor cells recapitulated bevacizumab-resistant cell features: survival and proliferation in low glucose, increased glycolysis, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, and rapid in vivo proliferation only slowed by bevacizumab to that of untreated bevacizumab-responsive tumors. Targeting GLUT3 or the increased glycolysis reliance in resistant tumors could unlock the potential of antiangiogenic treatments.
Ruby Kuang, Arman Jahangiri, Smita Mascharak, Alan Nguyen, Ankush Chandra, Patrick M. Flanigan, Garima Yagnik, Jeffrey R. Wagner, Michael De Lay, Diego Carrera, Brandyn A. Castro, Josie Hayes, Maxim Sidorov, Jose Luiz Izquierdo Garcia, Pia Eriksson, Sabrina Ronen, Joanna Phillips, Annette Molinaro, Suneil Koliwad, Manish K. Aghi
Zachary Richards, Ken Batai, Rachael Farhat, Ebony Shah, Andrew Makowski, Peter H. Gann, Rick Kittles, Larisa Nonn
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor–δ (PPARD) is upregulated in many major human cancers, but the role that its expression in cancer cells has in metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that specific PPARD downregulation or genetic deletion of PPARD in cancer cells significantly repressed metastasis in various cancer models in vivo. Mechanistically, PPARD promoted angiogenesis via interleukin 8 in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of transcriptome profiling of HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without genetic deletion of PPARD and gene expression patterns in The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal adenocarcinoma database identified novel pro-metastatic genes (GJA1, VIM, SPARC, STC1, SNCG) as PPARD targets. PPARD expression in cancer cells drastically affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion, further underscoring its necessity for metastasis. Clinically, high PPARD expression in various major human cancers (e.g., colorectal, lung, breast) was associated with significantly reduced metastasis-free survival. Our results demonstrate that PPARD, a druggable protein, is an important molecular target in metastatic cancer.
Xiangsheng Zuo, Weiguo Xu, Min Xu, Rui Tian, Micheline J. Moussalli, Fei Mao, Xiaofeng Zheng, Jing Wang, Jeffrey S. Morris, Mihai Gagea, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Dipen M. Maru, Asif Rashid, Russell Broaddus, Daoyan Wei, Mien-Chie Hung, Anil K. Sood, Imad Shureiqi
Tumor cells are thought to evade immune surveillance through interaction with immune cells. Much recent attention has focused on the modification of immune responses as a basis for new cancer treatments. SIRPα is an Ig superfamily protein that inhibits phagocytosis in macrophages upon interaction with its ligand CD47 expressed on the surface of target cells. Here, we show that SIRPα is highly expressed in human renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Furthermore, an anti-SIRPα Ab that blocks the interaction with CD47 markedly suppressed tumor formation by renal cell carcinoma or melanoma cells in immunocompetent syngeneic mice. This inhibitory effect of the Ab appeared to be mediated by dual mechanisms: direct induction of Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages and blockade of CD47-SIRPα signaling that negatively regulates such phagocytosis. The antitumor effect of the Ab was greatly attenuated by selective depletion not only of macrophages but also of NK cells or CD8+ T cells. In addition, the anti-SIRPα Ab also enhances the inhibitory effects of Abs against CD20 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) on tumor formation in mice injected with SIRPα-nonexpressing tumor cells. Anti-SIRPα Abs thus warrant further study as a potential new therapy for a broad range of cancers.
Tadahiko Yanagita, Yoji Murata, Daisuke Tanaka, Sei-ichiro Motegi, Eri Arai, Edwin Widyanto Daniwijaya, Daisuke Hazama, Ken Washio, Yasuyuki Saito, Takenori Kotani, Hiroshi Ohnishi, Per-Arne Oldenborg, Noel Verjan Garcia, Masayuki Miyasaka, Osamu Ishikawa, Yae Kanai, Takahide Komori, Takashi Matozaki
Approximately 50% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) have defects in genes involved in homologous recombination (HR) (i.e.,
Erin George, Hyoung Kim, Clemens Krepler, Brandon Wenz, Mehran Makvandi, Janos L. Tanyi, Eric Brown, Rugang Zhang, Patricia Brafford, Stephanie Jean, Robert H. Mach, Yiling Lu, Gordon B. Mills, Meenhard Herlyn, Mark Morgan, Xiaochen Zhang, Robert Soslow, Ronny Drapkin, Neil Johnson, Ying Zheng, George Cotsarelis, Katherine L. Nathanson, Fiona Simpkins
Current therapies to treat non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have proven ineffective owing to transient, variable, and incomplete responses. Here we show that ABL kinases, ABL1 and ABL2, promote metastasis of lung cancer cells harboring EGFR or KRAS mutations. Inactivation of ABL kinases suppresses NSCLC metastasis to brain and bone, and other organs. ABL kinases are required for expression of prometastasis genes. Notably, ABL1 and ABL2 depletion impairs extravasation of lung adenocarcinoma cells into the lung parenchyma. We found that ABL-mediated activation of the TAZ and β-catenin transcriptional coactivators is required for NSCLC metastasis. ABL kinases activate TAZ and β-catenin by decreasing their interaction with the β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase, leading to increased protein stability. High-level expression of
Jing Jin Gu, Clay Rouse, Xia Xu, Jun Wang, Mark W. Onaitis, Ann Marie Pendergast
Heterogeneity of tumor cells and their microenvironment can affect outcome in cancer. Blockade of immune checkpoints (ICPs) expressed only on a subset of immune cells leads to durable responses in advanced melanoma. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have recently emerged as a distinct subset of memory T cells in nonlymphoid tissues. Here, we show that functional properties and expression of ICPs within tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) differ from those of blood T cells. TILs secrete less IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α compared with circulating counterparts, and expression of VEGF correlated with reduced TIL infiltration. Within tumors, ICPs are particularly enriched within T cells with phenotype and genomic features of TRM cells and the CD16+ subset of myeloid cells. Concurrent T cell receptor (TCR) and tumor exome sequencing of individual metastases in the same patient revealed that interlesional diversity of TCRs exceeded differences in mutation/neoantigen load in tumor cells. These findings suggest that the TRM subset of TILs may be the major target of ICP blockade and illustrate interlesional diversity of tissue-resident TCRs within individual metastases, which did not equilibrate between metastases and may differentially affect the outcome of immune therapy at each site.
Chandra Sekhar Boddupalli, Noffar Bar, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael Krauthammer, Natopol Pornputtapong, Zifeng Mai, Stephan Ariyan, Deepak Narayan, Harriet Kluger, Yanhong Deng, Rakesh Verma, Rituparna Das, Antonella Bacchiocchi, Ruth Halaban, Mario Sznol, Madhav V. Dhodapkar, Kavita M. Dhodapkar
T cells that enter tumors are largely tolerized, but how that process is choreographed and how the ensuing “dysfunctional” tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are maintained are poorly understood and are difficult to assess in spontaneous disease. We exploited an autochthonous model of breast cancer for high-resolution imaging of the early and later stages of tumor residence to understand the relationships between cellular behaviors and cellular phenotypes. “Dysfunctional” differentiation began within the first days of tumor residence with an initial phase in which T cells arrest, largely on tumor-associated macrophages. Within 10 days, cellular motility increased and resembled a random walk, suggesting a relative absence of TCR signaling. We then studied the concurrent and apparently contradictory phenomenon that many of these cells express molecular markers of activation and were visualized undergoing active cell division. We found that whereas proliferation did not require ongoing TCR/ZAP70 signaling, instead this is driven in part by intratumoral IL-15 cytokine. Thus, TILs undergo sequential reprogramming by the tumor microenvironment and are actively retained, even while being antigen insensitive. We conclude that this program effectively fills the niche with ineffective yet cytokine-dependent TILs, and we propose that these might compete with new clones, when they arise.
Bijan Boldajipour, Amanda Nelson, Matthew F. Krummel
Monique A.J. van Eijndhoven, Josée M. Zijlstra, Nils J. Groenewegen, Esther E.E. Drees, Stuart van Niele, S. Rubina Baglio, Danijela Koppers-Lalic, Hans van der Voorn, Sten F.W.M. Libregts, Marca H.M. Wauben, Renee X. de Menezes, Jan R.T. van Weering, Rienk Nieuwland, Lydia Visser, Anke van den Berg, Daphne de Jong, D. Michiel Pegtel
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