Despite major advances in early detection and prognosis, chemotherapy resistance is a major hurdle in the battle against breast cancer. Identifying predictive markers and understanding the mechanisms are key steps to overcoming chemoresistance. Methylation-controlled J protein (MCJ, also known as DNAJC15) is a negative regulator of mitochondrial respiration and has been associated with chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity in cancer cell lines. Here we show, in a retrospective study of a large cohort of breast cancer patients, that low MCJ expression in breast tumors predicts high risk of relapse in patients treated with chemotherapy; however, MCJ expression does not correlate with response to endocrine therapy. In a prospective study in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, low MCJ expression also correlates with poor clinical response to chemotherapy and decreased disease-free survival. Using MCJ-deficient mice, we demonstrate that lack of MCJ is sufficient to induce mammary tumor chemoresistance in vivo. Thus, loss of expression of this endogenous mitochondrial modulator in breast cancer promotes the development of chemoresistance.
Maria J. Fernández-Cabezudo, Issam Faour, Kenneth Jones, Devin P. Champagne, Mohammed A. Jaloudi, Yassir A. Mohamed, Ghada Bashir, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Alia Albawardi, M. Jawad Hashim, Thomas S. Roberts, Haytham El-Salhat, Hakam El-Taji, Adnan Kassis, Dylan E. O’Sullivan, Brock C. Christensen, James DeGregori, Basel K. al-Ramadi, Mercedes Rincon
IL-1β is a well-established inducer of both insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function. Despite this, findings examining IL-1 receptor deficiency or antagonism in in vivo animal models, as well as in clinical studies of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, have led to conflicting results, suggesting that the actions of IL-1β on glycemic control may be pleiotropic in nature. In the present work, we find that the ability of IL-1β to amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human islets correlates with donor BMI. Islets from obese donors are sensitized to the insulinotropic effects of this cytokine, whereas the stimulatory effects of IL-1β are lost in islets from obese T2D patients, suggesting a role for IL-1 signaling in islet compensation. Indeed, mice deficient in IL-1 receptor type I become glucose intolerant more rapidly than their WT littermates and have impaired secretory responses during the acute stages of inflammatory and metabolic stress induced by LPS and high-fat diet, respectively. IL-1β directly enhances β cell insulin secretion by increasing granule docking and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) complex formation at the plasma membrane. Together, our study highlights the importance of IL-1β signaling in islet compensation to metabolic and inflammatory stress.
Catherine Hajmrle, Nancy Smith, Aliya F. Spigelman, Xiaoqing Dai, Laura Senior, Austin Bautista, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E. MacDonald
The capacity of pancreatic β cells to maintain glucose homeostasis during chronic physiologic and immunologic stress is important for cellular and metabolic homeostasis. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is a regulated adapter protein that links the insulin and IGF1 receptors to downstream signaling cascades. Since strategies to maintain or increase IRS2 expression can promote β cell growth, function, and survival, we conducted a screen to find small molecules that can increase IRS2 mRNA in isolated human pancreatic islets. We identified 77 compounds, including 15 that contained a tricyclic core. To establish the efficacy of our approach, one of the tricyclic compounds, trimeprazine tartrate, was investigated in isolated human islets and in mouse models. Trimeprazine is a first-generation antihistamine that acts as a partial agonist against the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and other GPCRs, some of which are expressed on human islets. Trimeprazine promoted CREB phosphorylation and increased the concentration of IRS2 in islets. IRS2 was required for trimeprazine to increase nuclear Pdx1, islet mass, β cell replication and function, and glucose tolerance in mice. Moreover, trimeprazine synergized with anti-CD3 Abs to reduce the progression of diabetes in NOD mice. Finally, it increased the function of human islet transplants in streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic mice. Thus, trimeprazine, its analogs, or possibly other compounds that increase IRS2 in islets and β cells without adverse systemic effects might provide mechanism-based strategies to prevent the progression of diabetes.
Alexandra Kuznetsova, Yue Yu, Jennifer Hollister-Lock, Lynn Opare-Addo, Aldo Rozzo, Marianna Sadagurski, Lisa Norquay, Jessica E. Reed, Ilham El Khattabi, Susan Bonner-Weir, Gordon C. Weir, Arun Sharma, Morris F. White
Noelia Escobedo, Steven T. Proulx, Sinem Karaman, Miriam E. Dillard, Nicole Johnson, Michael Detmar, Guillermo Oliver
Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure.
Julie L. Horton, Ola J. Martin, Ling Lai, Nicholas M. Riley, Alicia L. Richards, Rick B. Vega, Teresa C. Leone, David J. Pagliarini, Deborah M. Muoio, Kenneth C. Bedi Jr., Kenneth B. Margulies, Joshua J. Coon, Daniel P. Kelly
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