Osteolytic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, are characterized by diminished bone quality and increased fracture risk. The therapeutic challenge remains to maintain bone homeostasis with a balance between osteoclast-mediated resorption and osteoblast-mediated formation. Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of monocyte/macrophage-derived precursors. Here we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) expression in osteoclast precursors and its protein regulation are crucial for osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupled bone formation. In mice, monocyte/macrophage–specific knockdown of RIP140 (mϕRIP140KD) resulted in a cancellous osteopenic phenotype with significantly increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Osteoclast precursors isolated from mϕRIP140KD mice had significantly increased differentiation potential. Furthermore, conditioned media from mϕRIP140KD primary osteoclast cultures significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation. This suppressive activity was effectively and rapidly terminated by specific Syk-stimulated RIP140 protein degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that RIP140 functions primarily by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation through forming a transcription-suppressor complex with testicular receptor 4 (TR4) to repress osteoclastogenic genes. These data reveal that monocyte/macrophage RIP140/TR4 complexes may serve as a critical transcription regulatory complex maintaining homeostasis of osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupling with osteoblast formation. Accordingly, we propose a potentially novel therapeutic strategy, specifically targeting osteoclast precursor RIP140 protein in osteolytic bone diseases.
Bomi Lee, Urszula T. Iwaniec, Russell T. Turner, Yi-Wei Lin, Bart L. Clarke, Anne Gingery, Li-Na Wei
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections lead to severe inflammation in the airways. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characteristically have exaggerated airway inflammation and are more susceptible to infections with severe symptoms and increased mortality. The mechanisms that control inflammation during IAV infection and the mechanisms of immune dysregulation in COPD are unclear. We found that IAV infections lead to increased inflammatory and antiviral responses in primary bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) from healthy nonsmoking and smoking subjects. In pBECs from COPD patients, infections resulted in exaggerated inflammatory but deficient antiviral responses. A20 is an important negative regulator of NF-κB–mediated inflammatory but not antiviral responses, and A20 expression was reduced in COPD. IAV infection increased the expression of miR-125a or -b, which directly reduced the expression of A20 and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), and caused exaggerated inflammation and impaired antiviral responses. These events were replicated in vivo in a mouse model of experimental COPD. Thus, miR-125a or -b and A20 may be targeted therapeutically to inhibit excessive inflammatory responses and enhance antiviral immunity in IAV infections and in COPD.
Alan C-Y. Hsu, Kamal Dua, Malcolm R. Starkey, Tatt-Jhong Haw, Prema M. Nair, Kristy Nichol, Nathan Zammit, Shane T. Grey, Katherine J. Baines, Paul S. Foster, Philip M. Hansbro, Peter A. Wark
HIV vaginal transmission accounts for the majority of newly acquired heterosexual infections. However, the mechanism by which HIV spreads from the initial site of viral entry at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract to establish a systemic infection of lymphoid and peripheral tissues is not known. Once the virus exits the mucosa it rapidly spreads to all tissues, leading to CD4+ T cell depletion and the establishment of a viral reservoir that cannot be eliminated with current treatments. Understanding the molecular and cellular requirements for viral dissemination from the genital tract is therefore of great importance, as it could reveal new strategies to lengthen the window of opportunity to target the virus at its entry site in the mucosa where it is the most vulnerable and thus prevent systemic infection. Using HIV vaginal infection of humanized mice as a model of heterosexual transmission, we demonstrate that blocking the ability of leukocytes to respond to chemoattractants prevented HIV from leaving the female genital tract. Furthermore, blocking lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes prevented viremia and infection of the gut. Leukocyte trafficking therefore plays a major role in viral dissemination, and targeting the chemoattractant molecules involved can prevent the establishment of a systemic infection.
Maud Deruaz, Thomas T. Murooka, Sophina Ji, Marc A. Gavin, Vladimir D. Vrbanac, Judy Lieberman, Andrew M. Tager, Thorsten R. Mempel, Andrew D. Luster
IL-33 is one of the critical cytokines that activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and mediates allergic reactions. Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-33 is also involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Previously, we generated an IL-5 reporter mouse and revealed that lung IL-5–producing ILC2s played essential roles in regulating eosinophil biology. In this study, we evaluated the consequences of IL-33 administration over a long period, and we observed significant expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils surrounding pulmonary arteries. Unexpectedly, pulmonary arteries showed severe occlusive hypertrophy that was ameliorated in IL-5– or eosinophil-deficient mice, but not in Rag2-deficient mice. This indicates that IL-5–producing ILC2s and eosinophils play pivotal roles in pulmonary arterial hypertrophy. Administration of a clinically used vasodilator was effective in reducing IL-33–induced hypertrophy and repressed the expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils. Taken together, these observations demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and the causative roles of ILC2 in the process.
Masashi Ikutani, Koichi Tsuneyama, Makoto Kawaguchi, Junya Fukuoka, Fujimi Kudo, Susumu Nakae, Makoto Arita, Yoshinori Nagai, Satoshi Takaki, Kiyoshi Takatsu
Living in a mentally and physically stimulating environment has been suggested to have a beneficial effect on the immune response. This study investigates these effects, utilizing a 2-week program of environmental enrichment (EE) and 2 models of acute inflammation: zymosan-induced peritonitis (ZIP) and the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Our results revealed that following exposure to EE, mice possessed a significantly higher circulating neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio compared with control animals. When subject to ZIP, EE animals exhibit enhanced neutrophil and macrophage influx into their peritoneal cavity. Corresponding results were found in CLP, where we observed an improved capacity for enriched animals to clear systemic microbial infection. Ex vivo investigation of leukocyte activity also revealed that macrophages from EE mice presented an enhanced phagocytic capacity. Supporting these findings, microarray analysis of EE animals revealed the increased expression of immunomodulatory genes associated with a heightened and immunoprotective status. Taken together, these results provide potentially novel mechanisms by which EE influences the development and dynamics of the immune response.
Samuel Brod, Thomas Gobbetti, Beatrice Gittens, Masahiro Ono, Mauro Perretti, Fulvio D’Acquisto
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity, but our knowledge of post-ICH neuronal death and related mechanisms is limited. In this study, we first demonstrated that ferroptosis, a newly identified form of cell death, occurs in the collagenase-induced ICH model in mice. We found that administration of ferrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of ferroptosis, prevented neuronal death and reduced iron deposition induced by hemoglobin in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Mice treated with ferrostatin-1 after ICH exhibited marked brain protection and improved neurologic function. Additionally, we found that ferrostatin-1 reduced lipid reactive oxygen species production and attenuated the increased expression level of
Qian Li, Xiaoning Han, Xi Lan, Yufeng Gao, Jieru Wan, Frederick Durham, Tian Cheng, Jie Yang, Zhongyu Wang, Chao Jiang, Mingyao Ying, Raymond C. Koehler, Brent R. Stockwell, Jian Wang
The renal collecting duct (CD), as the terminal segment of the nephron, is responsible for the final adjustments to the amount of sodium excreted in urine. While angiotensin II modulates reabsorptive functions of the CD, the contribution of these actions to physiological homeostasis is not clear. To examine this question, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors from the CD. Elimination of AT1A receptors from both principal and intercalated cells (CDKO mice) had no effect on blood pressures at baseline or during successive feeding of low- or high-salt diets. In contrast, the severity of hypertension caused by chronic infusion of angiotensin II was paradoxically exaggerated in CDKO mice compared with controls. In wild-type mice, angiotensin II induced robust expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in renal medulla, primarily localized to intercalated cells. Upregulation of COX-2 was diminished in CDKO mice, resulting in reduced generation of vasodilator prostanoids. This impaired expression of COX-2 has physiological consequences, since administration of a specific COX-2 inhibitor to CDKO and control mice during angiotensin II infusion equalized their blood pressures. Stimulation of COX-2 was also triggered by exposure of isolated preparations of medullary CDs to angiotensin II. Deletion of AT1A receptors from principal cells alone did not affect angiotensin II–dependent COX2 stimulation, implicating intercalated cells as the main source of COX2 in this setting. These findings suggest a novel paracrine role for the intercalated cell to attenuate the severity of hypertension. Strategies for preserving or augmenting this pathway may have value for improving the management of hypertension.
Johannes Stegbauer, Daian Chen, Marcela Herrera, Matthew A. Sparks, Ting Yang, Eva Königshausen, Susan B. Gurley, Thomas M. Coffman
Surgery can induce cognitive decline, a risk that increases with advancing age. In rodents, postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is associated with the inflammatory activation of hippocampal microglia. To examine the role of microglia in POCD, we inhibited the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) in adult mice, effectively depleting CNS microglia. Surgical trauma (tibial fracture) reduced the ability of mice to remember a conditioned response learned preoperatively, a deficit more pronounced and persistent in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Whereas microglial depletion by itself did not affect learning or memory, perioperative microglial depletion remarkably protected mice, including those with DIO, from POCD. This protection was associated with reduced hippocampal levels of inflammatory mediators, abrogation of hippocampal recruitment of CCR2+ leukocytes, and higher levels of circulating inflammation-resolving factors. Targeting microglia may thus be a viable strategy to mitigate the development of POCD, particularly in those with increased vulnerability.
Xiaomei Feng, Martin Valdearcos, Yosuke Uchida, David Lutrin, Mervyn Maze, Suneil K. Koliwad
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of
Suzanne L. Cole, Jake Dunning, Wai Ling Kok, Kambez Hajipouran Benam, Adel Benlahrech, Emmanouela Repapi, Fernando O. Martinez, Lydia Drumright, Timothy J. Powell, Michael Bennett, Ruth Elderfield, Catherine Thomas, MOSAIC investigators, Tao Dong, John McCauley, Foo Y. Liew, Stephen Taylor, Maria Zambon, Wendy Barclay, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Peter J. Openshaw, Andrew J. McMichael, Ling-Pei Ho
Mutations in the
Milena B. Furtado, Julia C. Wilmanns, Anjana Chandran, Joelle Perera, Olivia Hon, Christine Biben, Taylor J. Willow, Hieu T. Nim, Gurpreet Kaur, Stephanie Simonds, Qizhu Wu, David Willians, Ekaterina Salimova, Nicolas Plachta, James M. Denegre, Stephen A. Murray, Diane Fatkin, Michael Cowley, James T. Pearson, David Kaye, Mirana Ramialison, Richard P. Harvey, Nadia A. Rosenthal, Mauro W. Costa
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