Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disorder with limited therapeutic options. Sclerodermatous graft versus host disease (sclGvHD), induced by transfer of B10.D2 splenocytes into BALB/c
Katia Urso, David Alvarez, Viviana Cremasco, Kelly Tsang, Angelo Grauel, Robert Lafyatis, Ulrich H. von Andrian, Joerg Ermann, Antonios O. Aliprantis
High-affinity self-reactive thymocytes are purged in the thymus, and residual self-reactive T cells, which are detectable in healthy subjects, are controlled by peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Breakdown in these mechanisms results in autoimmune disease, but antigen-specific therapy to augment natural mechanisms can prevent this. We aimed to determine when antigen-specific therapy is most effective. Islet autoantigens, proinsulin (PI), and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) were expressed in the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of autoimmune diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in a temporally controlled manner. PI expression from gestation until weaning was sufficient to completely protect NOD mice from diabetes, insulitis, and development of insulin autoantibodies. Insulin-specific T cells were significantly diminished, were naive, and did not express IFN-γ when challenged. This long-lasting effect from a brief period of treatment suggests that autoreactive T cells are not produced subsequently. We tracked IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells in NOD mice expressing IGRP in APCs. When IGRP was expressed only until weaning, IGRP206–214-specific CD8+ T cells were not detected later in life. Thus, anti-islet autoimmunity is determined during early life, and autoreactive T cells are not generated in later life. Bolstering tolerance to islet antigens in the perinatal period is sufficient to impart lasting protection from diabetes.
Gaurang Jhala, Jonathan Chee, Prerak M. Trivedi, Claudia Selck, Esteban N. Gurzov, Kate L. Graham, Helen E. Thomas, Thomas W.H. Kay, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune cells. African Americans tend to present with more severe disease at an earlier age compared with patients of European ancestry. In order to better understand the immunological differences between African American and European American patients, we analyzed the frequencies of B cell subsets and the expression of B cell activation markers from a total of 68 SLE patients and 69 normal healthy volunteers. We found that B cells expressing the activation markers CD86, CD80, PD1, and CD40L, as well as CD19+CD27–IgD– double-negative B cells, were enriched in African American patients vs. patients of European ancestry. In addition to increased expression of CD40L, surface levels of CD40 on B cells were lower, suggesting the engagement of the CD40 pathway. In vitro experiments confirmed that CD40L expressed by B cells could lead to CD40 activation and internalization on adjacent B cells. To conclude, these results indicate that, compared with European American patients, African American SLE patients present with a particularly active B cell component, possibly via the activation of the CD40/CD40L pathway. These data may help guide the development of novel therapies.
Laurence C. Menard, Sium Habte, Waldemar Gonsiorek, Deborah Lee, Dana Banas, Deborah A. Holloway, Nataly Manjarrez-Orduno, Mark Cunningham, Dawn Stetsko, Francesca Casano, Selena Kansal, Patricia M. Davis, Julie Carman, Clarence K. Zhang, Ferva Abidi, Richard Furie, Steven G. Nadler, Suzanne J. Suchard
Fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya), a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is one of the first-line immunomodulatory therapies for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Human
Hsing-Chuan Tsai, Yingxiang Huang, Christopher S. Garris, Monica A. Moreno, Christina W. Griffin, May H. Han
In human myocarditis and its sequela dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the mechanisms and immune phenotype governing disease and subsequent heart failure are not known. Here, we identified a Th17 cell immunophenotype of human myocarditis/DCM with elevated CD4+IL17+ T cells and Th17-promoting cytokines IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-23 as well as GM-CSF–secreting CD4+ T cells. The Th17 phenotype was linked with the effects of cardiac myosin on CD14+ monocytes, TLR2, and heart failure. Persistent heart failure was associated with high percentages of IL-17–producing T cells and IL-17–promoting cytokines, and the myocarditis/DCM phenotype included significantly low percentages of FOXP3+ Tregs, which may contribute to disease severity. We demonstrate a potentially novel mechanism in human myocarditis/DCM in which TLR2 peptide ligands from human cardiac myosin stimulated exaggerated Th17-related cytokines including TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-23 from myocarditic CD14+ monocytes in vitro, and an anti-TLR2 antibody abrogated the cytokine response. Our translational study explains how an immune phenotype may be initiated by cardiac myosin TLR ligand stimulation of monocytes to generate Th17-promoting cytokines and development of pathogenic Th17 cells in human myocarditis and heart failure, and provides a rationale for targeting IL-17A as a therapeutic option.
Jennifer M. Myers, Leslie T. Cooper, David C. Kem, Stavros Stavrakis, Stanley D. Kosanke, Ethan M. Shevach, DeLisa Fairweather, Julie A. Stoner, Carol J. Cox, Madeleine W. Cunningham
CD4+ T cells predominate in salivary gland (SG) inflammatory lesions in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). However, their antigen specificity, degree of clonal expansion, and relationship to clinical disease features remain unknown. We used multiplex reverse-transcriptase PCR to amplify paired T cell receptor α (TCRα) and β transcripts of single CD4+CD45RA– T cells from SG and peripheral blood (PB) of 10 individuals with primary SS, 9 of whom shared the HLA DR3/DQ2 risk haplotype. TCRα and β sequences were obtained from a median of 91 SG and 107 PB cells per subject. The degree of clonal expansion and frequency of cells expressing two productively rearranged α genes were increased in SG versus PB. Expanded clones from SG exhibited complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence similarity both within and among subjects, suggesting antigenic selection and shared antigen recognition. CDR3 similarities were shared among expanded clones from individuals discordant for canonical Ro and La autoantibodies, suggesting recognition of alternative SG antigen(s). The extent of SG clonal expansion correlated with reduced saliva production and increased SG fibrosis, linking expanded SG T cells with glandular dysfunction. Knowledge of paired TCRα and β sequences enables further work toward identification of target antigens and development of novel therapies.
Michelle L. Joachims, Kerry M. Leehan, Christina Lawrence, Richard C. Pelikan, Jacen S. Moore, Zijian Pan, Astrid Rasmussen, Lida Radfar, David M. Lewis, Kiely M. Grundahl, Jennifer A. Kelly, Graham B. Wiley, Mikhail Shugay, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Christopher J. Lessard, Donald U. Stone, R. Hal Scofield, Courtney G. Montgomery, Kathy L. Sivils, Linda F. Thompson, A. Darise Farris
Keisuke Maeshima, Stephanie M. Stanford, Deepa Hammaker, Cristiano Sacchetti, Li-fan Zeng, Rizi Ai, Vida Zhang, David L. Boyle, German R. Aleman Muench, Gen-Sheng Feng, John W. Whitaker, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Wei Wang, Nunzio Bottini, Gary S. Firestein
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