Tumor vascular normalization prevents tumor cells from breaking through the basement membrane and entering the vasculature, thereby inhibiting metastasis initiation. In this study, we report that the antitumor peptide JP1 regulated mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming through AMPK/FOXO3a/UQCRC2 signaling, which improved the tumor microenvironment hypoxia. The oxygen-rich tumor microenvironment inhibited the secretion of IL-8 by tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor vascular normalization. The normalized vasculature resulted in mature and regular blood vessels, which made the tumor microenvironment form a benign feedback loop consisting of vascular normalization, sufficient perfusion, and an oxygen-rich microenvironment, prevented tumor cells from entering the vasculature, and inhibited metastasis initiation. Moreover, the combined therapy of JP1 and paclitaxel maintained a certain vascular density in the tumor and promoted tumor vascular normalization, increasing the delivery of oxygen and drugs and enhancing the antitumor effect. Collectively, our work highlights the antitumor peptide JP1 as an inhibitor of metastasis initiation and its mechanism of action.


Jiahua Cui, Zhen Che, Lu Zou, Dongyin Chen, Zhan Xie, Kun Ding, Huning Jiang, Aiping Li, Jianwei Zhou, Yongqian Shu


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