Fibroproliferative disorders such as systemic sclerosis (SSc) have no effective therapies and result in significant morbidity and mortality. We recently demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of endostatin, known as E4, prevented and reversed both dermal and pulmonary fibrosis. Our goal was to identify the mechanism by which E4 abrogates fibrosis and its cell surface binding partner(s). Our findings show that E4 activated the urokinase pathway and increased the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) ratio. In addition, E4 substantially increased MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression and activity. In vivo, E4 reversed bleomycin induction of PAI-1 and increased uPA activity. In patients with SSc, the uPA/PAI-1 ratio was decreased in both lung tissues and pulmonary fibroblasts compared with normal donors. Proteins bound to biotinylated-E4 were identified as enolase-1 (ENO) and uPA receptor (uPAR). The antifibrotic effects of E4 required uPAR. Further, ENO mediated the fibrotic effects of TGF-β1 and exerted TGF-β1–independent fibrotic effects. Our findings suggest that the antifibrotic effect of E4 is mediated, in part, by regulation of the urokinase pathway and induction of MMP-1 and MMP-3 levels and activity in a uPAR-dependent manner, thus promoting extracellular matrix degradation. Further, our findings identify a moonlighting function for the glycolytic enzyme ENO in fibrosis.
Shailza Sharma, Tomoya Watanabe, Tetsuya Nishimoto, Takahisa Takihara, Logan Mlakar, Xinh-Xinh Nguyen, Matthew Sanderson, Yunyun Su, Roger A. Chambers, Carol Feghali-Bostwick
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.