Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HSV-1 both can cause genital herpes, a chronic infection that establishes a latent reservoir in the nervous system. Clinically, the recurrence frequency of HSV-1 genital herpes is considerably less than HSV-2 genital herpes, which correlates with reduced neuronal infection. The factors dictating the disparate outcomes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital herpes are unclear. In this study, we show that vaginal infection of mice with HSV-1 leads to the rapid appearance of mature DCs in the draining lymph node, which is dependent on an early burst of NK cell–mediated IFN-γ production in the vagina that occurs after HSV-1 infection but not HSV-2 infection. Rapid DC maturation after HSV-1 infection, but not HSV-2 infection, correlates with the accelerated generation of a neuroprotective T cell response and early accumulation of IFN-γ–producing T cells at the site of infection. Depletion of T cells or loss of IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) expression in sensory neurons both lead to a marked loss of neuroprotection only during HSV-1, recapitulating a prominent feature of HSV-2 infection. Our experiments reveal key differences in host control of neuronal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection after genital exposure of mice, and they define parameters of a successful immune response against genital herpes.
Aisha G. Lee, Jason M. Scott, Maria Rita Fabbrizi, Xiaoping Jiang, Dorothy K. Sojka, Mark J. Miller, Megan T. Baldridge, Wayne M. Yokoyama, Haina Shin
Rapid T cell activation occurs after vaginal HSV-1 infection.