Sepsis can induce an overwhelming systemic inflammatory response, resulting in organ damage and death. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) negatively regulates signaling by cytokine receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms for SOCS1 activity during polymicrobial sepsis are unknown. To address this, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis; C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP were then treated with a peptide (iKIR) that binds the SOCS1 kinase inhibitory region (KIR) and blocks its activity. Treatment with iKIR increased CLP-induced mortality, bacterial burden, and inflammatory cytokine production. Myeloid cell–specific SOCS1 deletion (Socs1Δmyel) mice were also more susceptible to sepsis, demonstrating increased mortality, higher bacterial loads, and elevated inflammatory cytokines, compared with Socs1fl littermate controls. These effects were accompanied by macrophage metabolic reprograming, as evidenced by increased lactic acid production and elevated expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 in septic Socs1Δmyel mice. Upregulation was dependent on the STAT3/HIF-1α/glycolysis axis, and blocking glycolysis ameliorated increased susceptibility to sepsis in iKIR-treated CLP mice. These results reveal a role of SOCS1 as a regulator of metabolic reprograming that prevents overwhelming inflammatory response and organ damage during sepsis.
Annie Rocio Piñeros Alvarez, Nicole Glosson-Byers, Stephanie Brandt, Soujuan Wang, Hector Wong, Sarah Sturgeon, Brian Paul McCarthy, Paul R. Territo, Jose Carlos Alves-Filho, C. Henrique Serezani
Cancer cells can inhibit effector T cells (Teff) through both immunomodulatory receptors and the impact of cancer metabolism on the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, Teff require high rates of glucose metabolism, and consumption of essential nutrients or generation of waste products by tumor cells may impede essential T cell metabolic pathways. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and altered cancer cell metabolism. Here, we assessed how ccRCC influences the metabolism and activation of primary patient ccRCC tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). CD8 TIL were abundant in ccRCC, but they were phenotypically distinct and both functionally and metabolically impaired. ccRCC CD8 TIL were unable to efficiently uptake glucose or perform glycolysis and had small, fragmented mitochondria that were hyperpolarized and generated large amounts of ROS. Elevated ROS was associated with downregulated mitochondrial SOD2. CD8 T cells with hyperpolarized mitochondria were also visible in the blood of ccRCC patients. Importantly, provision of pyruvate to bypass glycolytic defects or scavengers to neutralize mitochondrial ROS could partially restore TIL activation. Thus, strategies to improve metabolic function of ccRCC CD8 TIL may promote the immune response to ccRCC.
Peter J. Siska, Kathryn E. Beckermann, Frank M. Mason, Gabriela Andrejeva, Allison R. Greenplate, Adam B. Sendor, Yun-Chen J. Chiang, Armando L. Corona, Lelisa F. Gemta, Benjamin G. Vincent, Richard C. Wang, Bumki Kim, Jiyong Hong, Chiu-lan Chen, Timothy N. Bullock, Jonathan M. Irish, W. Kimryn Rathmell, Jeffrey C. Rathmell
Cholesterol accumulation in the liver is an early event in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we demonstrate that E2F1 plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis by regulating cholesterol uptake via proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), an enzyme that promotes low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation upon activation.
Qiuwen Lai, Albert Giralt, Cédric Le May, Lianjun Zhang, Bertrand Cariou, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Lluis Fajas
Abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to myocardial injury and remodeling. To determine whether accumulation of very long–chain ceramides occurs in human failing myocardium, we analyzed myocardial tissue and serum from patients with severe heart failure (HF) undergoing placement of left ventricular assist devices and controls. Lipidomic analysis revealed increased total and very long–chain ceramides in myocardium and serum of patients with advanced HF. After unloading, these changes showed partial reversibility. Following myocardial infarction (MI), serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pathway of ceramide synthesis, and ceramides were found increased. Blockade of SPT by the specific inhibitor myriocin reduced ceramide accumulation in ischemic cardiomyopathy and decreased C16, C24:1, and C24 ceramides. SPT inhibition also reduced ventricular remodeling, fibrosis, and macrophage content following MI. Further, genetic deletion of the
Ruiping Ji, Hirokazu Akashi, Konstantinos Drosatos, Xianghai Liao, Hongfeng Jiang, Peter J. Kennel, Danielle L. Brunjes, Estibaliz Castillero, Xiaokan Zhang, Lily Y. Deng, Shunichi Homma, Isaac J. George, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Ira J. Goldberg, P. Christian Schulze
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a central organ that acts to increase energy expenditure; its regulatory factors could be clinically useful in the treatment of obesity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Although BH4 regulates the known regulatory factors of BAT, such as noradrenaline (NA) and NO, participation of BH4 in BAT function remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the role of BH4 in the regulation of BAT. Hph-1 mice, a mouse model of BH4 deficiency, exhibit obesity, adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired BAT function. Impaired BAT function was ameliorated together with systemic metabolic disturbances by BAT transplantation from BH4-sufficient mice (control mice) into BH4-deficient mice, strongly suggesting that BH4-induced BAT has a critical role in the regulation of systemic energy metabolism. Both NA derived from the sympathetic nerve and NO derived from endothelial NOS in the blood vessels participate in the regulation of BH4. In addition, a direct effect of BH4 in the stimulation of brown adipocytes via NO is implicated. Taken together, BH4 activates BAT and regulates systemic energy metabolism; this suggests an approach for metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes.
Yasuo Oguri, Yoshihito Fujita, Abulizi Abudukadier, Akiko Ohashi, Tsuyoshi Goto, Futoshi Furuya, Akio Obara, Toru Fukushima, Naomi Matsuo, Minji Kim, Masaya Hosokawa, Teruo Kawada, Hiroyuki Hasegawa, Nobuya Inagaki
The discovery of metabolite-phenotype associations may highlight candidate biomarkers and metabolic pathways altered in disease states. We sought to identify novel metabolites associated with obesity and one of its major complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. In 997 individuals in Framingham Heart Study Generation 3 (FHS Gen 3), we identified an association between anandamide (AEA) and BMI. Further examination revealed that AEA was associated with radiographic hepatic steatosis. In a histologically defined NAFLD cohort, AEA was associated with NAFLD severity, the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. These data highlight AEA as a marker linking cardiometabolic disease and NAFLD severity.
W. Taylor Kimberly, John F. O’Sullivan, Anjali K. Nath, Michelle Keyes, Xu Shi, Martin G. Larson, Qiong Yang, Michelle T. Long, Ramachandran Vasan, Randall T. Peterson, Thomas J. Wang, Kathleen E. Corey, Robert E. Gerszten
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by an excess accumulation of hepatic triglycerides, is a growing health epidemic. While ER stress in the liver has been implicated in the development of NAFLD, the role of brain ER stress — which is emerging as a key contributor to a number of chronic diseases including obesity — in NAFLD remains unclear. These studies reveal that chemical induction of ER stress in the brain caused hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis in mice. Conversely, pharmacological reductions in brain ER stress in diet-induced obese mice rescued NAFLD independent of body weight, food intake, and adiposity. Evaluation of brain regions involved revealed robust activation of ER stress biomarkers and ER ultrastructural abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a nucleus situated outside of the blood-brain-barrier, in response to high-fat diet. Targeted reductions in SFO-ER stress in obese mice via SFO-specific supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose–regulated protein ameliorated hepatomegaly and hepatic steatosis without altering body weight, food intake, adiposity, or obesity-induced hypertension. Overall, these findings indicate a novel role for brain ER stress, notably within the SFO, in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
Julie A. Horwath, Chansol Hurr, Scott D. Butler, Mallikarjun Guruju, Martin D. Cassell, Allyn L. Mark, Robin L. Davisson, Colin N. Young
β-Klotho (encoded by
Emmanuel Somm, Hugues Henry, Stephen J. Bruce, Sébastien Aeby, Marta Rosikiewicz, Gerasimos P. Sykiotis, Mohammed Asrih, François R. Jornayvaz, Pierre Damien Denechaud, Urs Albrecht, Moosa Mohammadi, Andrew Dwyer, James S. Acierno Jr., Kristina Schoonjans, Lluis Fajas, Gilbert Greub, Nelly Pitteloud
Accurate and high-quality curation of lipidomic datasets generated from plasma, cells, or tissues is becoming essential for cell biology investigations and biomarker discovery for personalized medicine. However, a major challenge lies in removing artifacts otherwise mistakenly interpreted as real lipids from large mass spectrometry files (>60 K features), while retaining genuine ions in the dataset. This requires powerful informatics tools; however, available workflows have not been tailored specifically for lipidomics, particularly discovery research. We designed LipidFinder, an open-source Python workflow. An algorithm is included that optimizes analysis based on users’ own data, and outputs are screened against online databases and categorized into LIPID MAPS classes. LipidFinder outperformed three widely used metabolomics packages using data from human platelets. We show a family of three 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid phosphoinositides (16:0/, 18:1/, 18:0/12-HETE-PI) generated by thrombin-activated platelets, indicating crosstalk between eicosanoid and phosphoinositide pathways in human cells. The software is available on GitHub (https://github.com/cjbrasher/LipidFinder), with full userguides.
Anne O’Connor, Christopher J. Brasher, David A. Slatter, Sven W. Meckelmann, Jade I. Hawksworth, Stuart M. Allen, Valerie B. O’Donnell
Insulin can inhibit hepatic glucose production (HGP) by acting directly on the liver as well as indirectly through effects on adipose tissue, pancreas, and brain. While insulin’s indirect effects are indisputable, their physiologic role in the suppression of HGP seen in response to increased insulin secretion is not clear. Likewise, the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis and pancreatic α cell secretion under physiologic circumstances are also debated. In this study, insulin was infused into the hepatic portal vein to mimic increased insulin secretion, and insulin’s indirect liver effects were blocked either individually or collectively. During physiologic hyperinsulinemia, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucagon levels were clamped at basal values and brain insulin action was blocked, but insulin’s direct effects on the liver were left intact. Insulin was equally effective at suppressing HGP when its indirect effects were absent as when they were present. In addition, the inhibition of lipolysis, as well as glucagon and insulin secretion, did not require CNS insulin action or decreased plasma FFA. This indicates that the rapid suppression of HGP is attributable to insulin’s direct effect on the liver and that its indirect effects are redundant in the context of a physiologic increase in insulin secretion.
Dale S. Edgerton, Guillaume Kraft, Marta Smith, Ben Farmer, Phillip E. Williams, Katie C. Coate, Richard L. Printz, Richard M. O’Brien, Alan D. Cherrington
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